The Prostatitis Foundation

Prostatitis and infertility

 

Page 3 of a 7-page collection of scientific abstracts on prostatitis and infertility
Abstracts on this page:   Varicocele  | Echography in prostatitis  | PCR versus culture  | Treatment of leukocytospermia  | Incubated Sperm  | Semen quality  | Transrectal Echography  | Infections of the ejaculate  | Spermagglutination by bacteria  | Trans Rectal Uultrasonography  | Imaging the prostate  | Diagnosis of infection in infertility  | Incidentally found hypoechoic lesions  | Genital mycoplasma  | Chernobyl  | Value of Massage in detecting Chlamydia  | Sperm count  | Epidermal growth factor | Glutathione therapy  | Sperm chromatin  | Ultrasonography before and after ejaculation  | Prostatovesiculitis  | Page two of Infertility Abstracts  |   Page four of Infertility Abstracts  |   Page five of Infertility Abstracts  |   Page six of Infertility Abstracts  |   Page seven of Infertility Abstracts  |  
NLM CIT. ID: 95075548
Varicocele and infertility: clinical framework and therapeutic approach
Sciannameo F; Alberti D; de Sol A; Caselli M Madami C; Ronca P
Istituto di Patologia Chirurgica (R)-Sede in Terni
Universita degli Studi di Perugia.
Minerva Ginecol 1994 Sep;46(9):467-72
A diagnostic-therapeutic protocol which can be used in patients affected with varicocele, in order to obtain a complete clinical study of them and try to improve functional results of therapy, is described. The aims of this protocol are: precise diagnosis of venous refluxes, examination of testicular functionality, detection of possible associated pathologies which can cause infertility, establishment of correct indication to hormonal postoperative therapy. The rapid surgical correction of venous stasis, the treatment of prostatic phlogosis, often concomitant, and, in selected patients, the use of hormonal therapy, can improve functional results in the treatment of this pathology.
(back to top)NLM CIT. ID: 95195699
Echography in prostatitis
Vespasiani G; Virgili G; Giurioli A; Di Stasi SM Torelli F; Valitutti M
Cattedra di Urologia
Universita de l'Aquila
Italy
In many infertile patients abnormalities in sperm are due to prostatic inflammatory disease. In the male reproductive system temporary episodes of inflammation, caused by newly discovered micro-organisms such as chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum, may occur frequently and cause sub-clinical inflammation. This rapidly became chronic and induce the development of anti-spermatozoon antibodies. This latent clinical pattern and lack of symptoms often means diagnosis is late and medical treatment inadequate. In recent years attention has been focused on transrectal ultrasonography as a possible gold standard for diagnosing prostatic inflammatory disease. Widespread use of technologically advanced instruments has significantly improved the quality and definition of prostatic images. This paper discusses the current role of transrectal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of prostatic inflammatory disease. Abnormalities in the ultrasound pattern, caused by infection, are analyzed in detail and discussed critically in order to assess their role as markers of prostatic inflammation.
NLM CIT. ID: 95114036
Comparison of PCR with culture for detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in clinical samples from patients with urogenital infections (back to top)
Teng K; Li M; Yu W; Li H; Shen D; Liu D
Department of Medical Genetics
Western Region Hospital
Urumqi, Xinjian, People's Republic of China
J Clin Microbiol 1994 Sep;32(9):2232-4
PCR was compared with culture for the detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 50 specimens, including sperm, urine, and prostate uecretions, from hospital patients with urogenital infections. Five positive and a further four doubtful diagnoses were made by culture, Whereas PCR detected U. urealyticum in 12 samples. PCR also was faster than culturing. The increased sensitivity and shorter time requirement of PCR support its further development for the diagnosis of U. urealyticum infection.
NLM CIT. ID: 94341406
Efficacy of treatment and recurrence rate of leukocytospermia in infertile men with prostatitis (back to top)
Branigan EF; Muller CH
University of Washington School of Medicine
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility
Seattle WA 98105
Fertil Steril 1994 Sep;62(3):580-4
Objective:
To identify men with leukocytospermia and prostatitis in an infertility practice and evaluate the effect of various treatments and recurrence rates after treatment.
Design:
A prospective randomized trial of men with leukocytospermia.
Setting:
Academic tertiary infertility clinic.
Patients
One hundred two men with leukocytosperimia identified on smear of semen using Bryan-Leishman stain and in expressed prostatic secretion.
Interventions:
Treatment groups were no treatment group; antibiotic treatment alone group; frequent ejaculation alone group; and antibiotic treatment with frequent ejaculation group.
MainOutcome Measure:
Resolution of leukocytospermia on semen smear.
Results:
Significant resolution of leukocytospermia occurred in all treatment groups at 1 month compared with no treatment. The resolution was sustained at 2 and 3 months only in those who took antibiotics and frequently ejaculated.
Conclusions:
Antibiotic treatment, frequent ejaculation, and antibiotic treatment with frequent ejaculation effectively treat leukocytospermia immediately after the treatment phase. However, only antibiotic treatment coupled with frequent ejaculation is effective 3 months after treatment.
NLM CIT. ID: 94341405
In vitro fertilization in couples with previous fertilization failure using sperm incubated with pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine (back to top)
Tournaye H; Janssens R; Verheyen G; Devroey P Van Steirteghem A
Centre for Reproductive Medicine
University Hospital
Brussels Free University, Belgium.
Fertil Steril 1994 Sep;62(3):574-9
Objective:
To evaluate whether incubation of spermatozoa with both pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine would improve fertilization rates in couples with previous IVF failure. DESIGN: Autocontrolled design in which sibling oocytes were inseminated at random in vitro with spermatozoa treated or not treated by pentoxifylline and 2- deoxyadenosine. MEAN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oocyte quality, sperm motility, fertilization in vitro, and embryo quality.
Results:
Sperm motility was found optimized by metabolic stimulation using pentoxifylline and 2- deoxyadenosine. The mean fertilization rate per patient was 33.1% in the treatment group compared with 37.0% in the control group. The mean cleavage rate per patient was 79.6% for treatment versus 68.7% for control embryos. No differences in embryo quality were noted.
Conclusion
The results of this study demonstrate that an indiscriminate use of pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine is not beneficial to fertilization in couples with previous IVF failure. Further prospective research may be needed to assess the benefit of pentoxifylline and 2-deoxyadenosine in patients selected by preliminary functional in vitro tests.
NLM CIT. ID: 94252431
Reduced semen quality caused by chronic abacterial prostatitis: an Enigma or reality? (back to top)
Leib Z; Bartoov B; Eltes F; Servadio C
Beilinson Medical Center
Petah Tiqva, Israel
Fertil Steril 1994 Jun;61(6):1109-16
Objective:
To investigate whether there is an inter-relationship between chronic abacterial prostatitis and potential infertility.
Design:
As part of the eligibility studies for hyperthermia treatment for chronic abacterial prostatitis patients, a large number of chronic prostatitis patients were referred to us from peripheral outpatient clinics. Sperm analysis was a routine portion of the eligibility studies. To exclude bacterial prostatitis, urine cultures, expressed prostatic secretion, and semen cultures were performed. The patient population was not differentiated on the basis of those suffering from either nonbacterial prostatitis or prostatodynia according to the commonly accepted classification. The control group was the laboratory normal standard group.
Setting:
Normal human volunteers in an academic and clinical research environment.
Patients
The first group includes 86 patients suffering from long-standing (1 to 20 years) chronic abacterial prostatitis, according to the commonly accepted classification, with a mean age of 39.9 +/- 9.5 years. The second group includes 101 normal fertile men with a mean age of 31.4 +/- 5.5 years.
Interventions:
The routine semen analysis performed included biochemical tests of seminal plasma, bacteriology, and light microscopy.
Main Outcome Measure:
The original hypothesis was based on a reduction in semen quality in these patients caused by chronic abacterial prostatitis. Measurements for sperm motility parameters, morphology characteristics, prostate markers, and white blood cells (WBC) were designed accordingly.
Results:
Statistical comparisons of the two groups showed that several sperm motility parameters, morphology characteristics, prostate markers, and WBC are outside of the normal value ranges in the chronic abacterial prostatitis group. In addition, there is a correlation between the duration of the disease and two important sperm analysis variables: increased prostatic markers and appearance of sperm morphological defects.
Conclusion
From the resultss obtained, the high incidence of secondary infertility in these patients may be explained.
NLM CIT. ID: 94328301
Role of transrectal echography in the evaluation of male infertility. apropos of 91 studies (back to top)
Boyer L; Hermabessiere J; Boyer-Medeville C Boissier A; Viallet JF
Service de Radiologie et Imagerie Medicale
CHRU
Clermont-Ferrand, France
J Radiol 1994 May;75(5):321-6
Ninety-one infertile men with oligospermia and normal FSH serum level have been explored by transrectal ultrasound, biochemical sperm study and spermoculture. Ultrasound data concerning ejaculatory ducts, seminal vesicles and prostate distinguished images evocative of constitutive abnormalities (18 patients, whom sperm fructosis level was low in only one among 12) and images evocative of inflammatory processes (44 patients, whom limited correlations with biological datas were found). Transrectal ultrasound appears as a complement of biological data in infertile man evaluation, offering a better approach of vesiculo-deferentography's indication.
NLM CIT. ID: 94330071
Infections of the ejaculate by sexually transmissible pathogens (back to top)
Ludwig M; Kummel C; Diemer T; Ringert RH Andrologische Sprechstunde der Klinik und Poliklinik fur Urologie
Georg- August-Universitat
Gottingen, Germany
Urologe A 1994 May;33(3):203-10
Certain ejaculate infections can be traced back to sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Trichomonas vaginalis. To varying extents, these microorganisms cause such classical genital infections as urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis as well as subclinical genital tract infections. Several different pathomechanisms are under discussion for infection of the ejaculate: reduction of spermatogenesis resulting from testicular damage, autoimmune processes induced by inflammation, direct influence on the spermatozoal function, disturbances in spermatozoal transport, secretory dysfunction of the male accessory sex glands and leukocytospermia with secondary influence on ejaculate parameters. The relevance of these microorganisms for the localization of the inflammatory process within the genital tract are discussed in detail. Their importance for male fertility is a matter of debate. In particular, the significance of C. Trachomatis and U. Urealyticum, both of which are detectable in the urethra, is still uncertain and cannot be assessed conclusively. Further information allowing delimitation of an infection resulting from bacterial colonization may be provided, on the one hand, by biochemical markers for an inflammatory reaction and indicators of an immune response in the ejaculate, e.g. PMN elastase, complement c3, or coeruloplasmin, and on the other hand, by secretion markers such as alpha-glucosidase, PSA and phosphatase. Whether the assessment of these markers and indicators can help to clarify the inflammatory origin of infertility in individual cases remains doubtful.
NLM CIT. ID: 94334163
Spermagglutination by bacteria: receptor-specific interactions (back to top)
Monga M; Roberts JA
Department of Urology
Tulane University School of Medicine
New Orleans, Louisiana.
J Androl 1994 Mar-Apr;15(2):151-6
The influence of genital infection on infertility has yet to be elucidated. We examined receptor-ligand interactions between sperm and Escherichia coli from patients with prostatitis. Two E. Coli surface adhesins (P-fimbriae, type 1 fimbriae) and their specific receptor saccharides (alpha-galp-1-4-beta-galp-O-methyl [gal-gal], mannose) were evaluated. Bacterial concentrations of 10(4) caused spermagglutination. P-fimbriae caused tail-tail spermagglutination that was inhibited by gal-gal. D-mannose concentrations are highest in the acrosomal region and type 1 fimbriae caused head-head agglutination that was inhibited by mannose. Strains with both fimbriae caused head-head and tail-tail agglutination that was inhibited by a mannose/gal-gal combination. E. Coli agglutinated 40-75% of motile sperm. Seminal fluid provided 50- 100% protection, with lower effectiveness against type 1 fimbriae. Understanding bacteria-spermatozoa interactions at the receptor-ligand level holds potential for treatment of infertility and development of spermagglutinating contraceptives.
NLM CIT. ID: 94166318
Studies of transrectal prostatic ultrasonography on patients with male infertility (back to top)
Kazama T; Oota S; Tsuritani S; Fujiuchi Y; Kimura H Nagakawa O; Fujishiro Y; Takamine T; Fuse H; Katayama T
Department of Urology
School of Medicine
Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 1994 Feb;85(2):302-7
The diagnostic significance of transrectal prostatic ultrasonography for chronic prostatitis and varicocele was evaluated in 380 male infertility patients. Of 20 patients with pyospermia, thought to be mainly caused by chronic prostatitis, 10.0 percent showed heterogeneous echo pattern of the prostate, while 25.0 percent showed capsular irregularity. Since 285 patients with non-infected semen showed similar sonographic findings, it is concluded that prostatic ultrasonography has little value in the diagnosis of chronic prostatitis in infertile patients. Enlarged periprostatic echo-free zone, thought to coincide with the dilatation of the Santrini's Plexus, was found in 42.9 and 42.7 percent of patients with chronic prostatitis and varicocele, respectively, in contrast to 34.0 percent of patients without either diseases. Twelve percent of patients with varicocele showed highly enlarged echo-free zone, which was significantly more frequent compared to 5.0 percent in normal patients. Moreover, follow up of 4 patients with varicocele pre- and post-operatively found 2 of them to show a great improvement in the enlargement of the zone. These results suggest that varicocele may cause the dilation of the santrini's plexus through a venous anastomosis in some patients and transrectal ultrasonography may be a useful tool in detecting small varicoceles in such patients.
NLM CIT. ID: 93313653
Imaging the prostate (back to top)
Clements R
Department of Clinical Radiology
Royal Gwent Hospital
Newport, UK
Br J Hosp Med 1993 May 19-Jun 1;49(10):703-9
There have been major advances in prostate imaging techniques in recent years. Most prostatic imaging is centred on the earlier diagnosis and more accurate staging of cancer but transrectal ultrasonography is also valuable in the assessment of prostatitis, haemospermia, male infertility and prostatic volume measurement before the treatment of outflow tract obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia.
NLM CIT. ID: 93224191
Infection in the male reproductive tract. Impact, diagnosis and treatment in relation to male infertility (back to top)
Purvis K; Christiansen E
Andrology Laboratory
National Hospital
Oslo, Norway
Int J Androl 1993 Feb;16(1):1-13
    The following are the conclusions that can be derived from a review of the literature regarding the role of infection in the aetiology of male infertility.
  1. Temporary inflammatory episodes in the male reproductive tract which are self-limiting are probably common.
  2. Caution should be exercised in the use of leukospermia or bacteriospermia as parameters for glandular infection.
  3. There is a need for alternative techniques for detecting non-symptomatic deep pelvic infections in the male; one technique of great promise is rectal ultrasound.
  4. Rectal ultrasound indicates that a large number of men with poor sperm quality have a non-symptomatic, chronic prostatovesiculitis.
  5. Increasing evidence implicates chlamydia trachomatis as being a major cause of chronic non-bacterial prostatitis.
  6. An important aspect of chlamydial infections in men may be that the male accessory sex glands may function as reservoirs for the organism, increasing the probability of infection in the female.
  7. Ureaplasma urealyticum may also play an important aetiological role in male infertility but its significance is confounded by its acknowledged function as a commensal in the reproductive tract.
  8. One of the manifestations of male reproductive tract infection is the induction of sperm autoantibodies.
  9. There is a need for more systematic controlled studies of the effects of antibiotic treatment on sperm quality with different preparations for extended periods using patient groups in which a glandular infection has been verified, e.g. by rectal ultrasonography.

NLM CIT. ID: 93325156
Work-up and management of incidentally found hypoechoic lesions of the testis (back to top)
de la Rosette JJ; Karthaus HF; Schaafsma EE Van Dijk R
Department of Urology
University Hospital
Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Urol Int 1993;51(1):23-7
This study reviews our experience with the presentation of occult echo- poor lesions of the testis in patients who were seen with problems such as infertility, prostatitis or orchialgia. A range of pathologic problems revealed by scrotal ultrasonography in these patients is presented, and we compared surgical and pathological findings to those of preoperative scrotal ultrasonography. Scrotal ultrasound appears to be a highly sensitive but nonspecific diagnostic technique.
NLM CIT. ID: 94340272
State of the reproductive system of men who participated in the cleaning-up of aftereffects of the Chernobyl AES accident (back to top)
Evdokimov VV; Erasova VI; Demin AI; Dubinina EB Liubchenko PN
Med Tr Prom Ekol 1993;(3-4):25-6
A total of 164 males aged from 22 to 50, who had taken part in liquidating the consequences of Chernobyl power station accident, was examined. According to the military cards irradiation dose did not exceed 25 cgy. Semen of 125 examinees was studied. One third of examinees showed sexual dysfunction, which did not appear to depend on the irradiation dose. Analyses revealed pathologic changes in semen and ultrasound demonstrated alterations in prostate and seminal vesicles similar to chronic prostatitis and vesiculitis. No typical radiation- induced lesions were discovered. The author suggest assigning infertility and impotence to the list of entitles, which occurred and exacerbated due to liquidating the consequences of chernobyl power station accident.
NLM CIT. ID: 95039156
Value of prostatic massage for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in the male urethra (back to top)
Contracept Fertil Sex 1993 Jan;21(1):41-4
The aim of this work was to evaluate prostatic massage (PM) as diagnostic method of chronic chlamydial infection (possible etiologic agent of male infertility or chronic prostatitis). 105 men were examined. One urethral swabbing and one urine sampling are done before PM. After PM, prostatic fluid is collected spontaneously and in a minimum volume of urine. Chlamydial isolation samples are treated by 3 methods: culture on hela 229 cells, immunoenzymology and direct immunofluorescence. Of 107 samplings, 22 were positive. In 13 patients (14 samplings) the result was positive by PM alone. In those cases, prostatic massage was the only way to establish the chlamydial infection, when urethral swabbing, usual method, is negative. If confirmed, the interest of prostatic massage rests on detection of unknown genital chlamydial infection, and this, by a non surgical method.
NLM CIT. ID: 93079040
Andrologic significance of genital mycoplasma (back to top)
Corradi G; Molnar G; Panovics J
Urologiai Klinika
Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem
Budapest, Hungary
Orv Hetil 1992 Nov 29;133(48):3085-8
The authors investigated the effect of genital mycoplasma infection of fertility. The rate of silent mycoplasma infection was studied in asymptomatic andrological patients (655 persons) and in a control group of so called "chronic prostatitis" (1085) patients with clinical symptoms. In the asymptomatic andrological group the urethral smear was positive in 12.5% of cases, the ejaculate in 22.0% of cases. In the "chronic prostatitic" group mycoplasma infection was present in urethral smear in 34.8% of cases, and in the ejaculate in 37.0% of cases. The isolation showed that 29.2% of positive ejaculate samples contained M. Hominis, and 70.8% of samples was infected by U. urealyticum. For investigating the effect of mycoplasma infection on the male fertilization capacity, infected and non infected andrological patients was compared by conventional andrological parameters and by modern functional tests like bovin mucus penetration test, hypoosmotic swelling test and swim up procedure. all the modern parameters and one of the conventional tests (sperm motility) showed a significant difference between the two groups.
NLM CIT. ID: 93026335
Significant bacteriospermia. Value and limits of sperm count in Andrology (back to top)
Corradi G; Molnar G; Panovics J; Lindeisz F
Urologiai Klinika
Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem
Budapest, Hungary
Orv Hetil 1992 Oct 25;133(43):2759-62, 2765-6
The data concerning bacteriospermia--are very different in the literature. Asymptomatic andrologic patients, and as control group--patients of the outpatient department for male adnexitis--were studied. Cultivation of aerobic bacteria and mycoplasmas has been recently accomplished by quantitative bacteriological analysis and chlamydia diagnostic. The microbiological screening of 210 andrologic patients ejaculate has given the following results: 19.6% were sterile, 21.0% were colonised by apathogens, 59.1% were positive: 6.2% Mycoplasma hominis, 15.8% Ureaplasma urealyticum, 13.3% Chlamydia trachomatis, 51.9% other aerobic pathogens. 27.6% of samples contained more then one kind of bacteria strains. quantitative isolation of aerobics and mycoplasmas in both andrological and male adnexitis patients groups showed the following distribution. In the andrologic groups 14.7% of samples contained 10(4) CFU/ml, 9.6% more than 10(4) CFU/ml aerobic bacteria; in the male adnexitis group nearly twice higher values could be observed (20.2% and 19.5%). The distribution of mycoplasma CFU/ml was the following; andrologie group: 20.1% of samples contained 10(4) mycoplasma CFU/ml, 37.5% more than 10(4) CFU/ml; in the male adnixitis group the identical values: 22.9%, 66.9%. Chi 2 statistical analysis showed significant difference ((p = 0.000) in the distribution of data in the two groups. On the other hand both of the groups contained all kinds of bacteriological concentration and even negative cases. Therefore authors suggest more biochemical iInvestigations for detecting inflammatory diseases. Spermaparameters (motility and progressive motility) of andrological patients, divided by sperm concentration (cell number above and under 20 million/ml) and the degree of infection (non infected, slightly infected, and above 10(4) CFU/ml) were significantly different in the seriously infected group by variance analysis (p = 0.000).
NLM CIT. ID: 92368291
Epidermal growth factor contents in seminal plasma as a marker of prostatic function(back to top)
Fuse H; Sakamoto M; Okumura M; Katayama T
Department of Urology
Faculty of Medicine
Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan
Arch Androl 1992 Jul-Aug;29(1):79-85
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), first identified in extracts from submaxillary salivary glands of adult male mice, acts as a potent mitogen in a wide variety of cells and tissues in culture. Human EGF, a polypeptide of 53 amino acids isolated from human urine, has been identified in several biological fluids, including prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Epidermal growth factor content in seminal plasma was measured by RIA. The EGF content in seminal fluid did not change after bilateral vasectomy and the first fraction of sample obtained by split ejaculation contained a significantly larger amount of EGF than the second fraction. Seminal EGF originates from the prostate. There was a close correlation between EGF and zinc contents in seminal fluid. The seminal fluid EGF content was lowered in patients with prostatitis and systemic androgen deficiency. The EGF content in seminal fluid seems to be a reliable indicator of prostatic function.
NLM CIT. ID: 92368289
Glutathione therapy for male infertility (back to top)
Lenzi A; Lombardo F; Gandini L; Culasso F; Dondero F
University Laboratory of Seminology & Immunology of Reproduction
University of Rome
La Sapienza, Italy.
Arch Androl 1992 Jul-Aug;29(1):65-8
Eleven infertile men were treated with glutathione (600 mg/day IM) for 2 months. The patients were suffering from dyspermia associated with various andrological pathologies. Standard semen and computer analyses of sperm motility were carried out before treatment and after 30 and 60 days of therapy. Glutathione exerted significant effect on sperm motility patterns. Glutathione appears to have a therapeutic effect on some andrological pathologies causing male infertility.
NLM CIT. ID: 92241993
Sperm chromatin stability and zinc binding properties in semen from men in barren unions (back to top)
Kjellberg S; Bjorndahl L; Kvist U
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University Hospital, Linkoping, Sweden
Int J Androl 1992 Apr;15(2):103-13
Sperm chromatin stability and zinc binding properties were studied in semen samples from 115 men living in barren unions. Of these men, 26% had a high proportion of swelling sperm, i.e. Less than 80% sperm with stable chromatin after exposure to the detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate. From 2-67% of seminal zinc was bound to high molecular weight ligands of vesicular origin (HMW). This shows that, among infertile men, liquefied seminal plasma has huge variations in zinc chelating properties. The relationship between prostatic palpatory status, the proportion of abnormal sperm, the percentage zinc bound to HMW (HMW- Zn), the time between ejaculation and analysis and chromatin stability were studied. Samples with low chromatin stability were found more frequently in men with low HMW-Zn levels in semen. The proportion of stable sperm decreased in samples with prolonged exposure to seminal plasma. Neither the proportion of stable sperm heads nor the percentage zinc bound to HMW could be used to predict the future chances of the infertile men fathering children when studied 15-180 min after ejaculation. To differentiate between initial zinc-dependent stability and superstability developed in seminal plasma, other more sensitive methods must be developed.
NLM CIT. ID: 93069709
Evaluation of seminal vesicle characteristics by ultrasonography before and after ejaculation (back to top)
Fuse H; Okumura A; Satomi S; Kazama T; Katayama T
Department of Urology
Faculty of Medicine
Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
Japan
Urol Int 1992;49(2):110-3
Twenty males underwent transrectal ultrasonography before and after ejaculation to examine possible alterations that could influence interpretation of seminal vesicle ultrasonography. The preejaculation length of 35 mm was significantly (p <0.05) decreased to 30 mm after ejaculation. The mean width of the seminal vesicles was 13 mm before and 11 mm after ejaculation. The seminal vesicle volume was significantly diminished after ejaculation (p < 0.05). It therefore seems important to maintain a period of abstinence when evaluating the seminal vesicles by ultrasonography.
NLM CIT. ID: 92081137
Sperm quality in men with chronic abacterial prostatovesiculitis verified by rectal ultrasonography (back to top)
Christiansen E; Tollefsrud A; Purvis K,
Andrology Laboratory
National Hospital
Oslo, Norway.
Urology 1991 Dec;38(6):545-9
Semen analyses were performed on 50 men with chronic abacterial prostatovesiculitis (CPV) and 25 asymptomatic control subjects. All subjects had had symptoms of at least three months' duration, and the diagnosis was verified by rectal ultrasonography and after microbiologic culture of seminal plasma. Fifty-eight percent had increased concentrations of leukocytes (greater than 1 x 10(6)/ml) in the ejaculate compared with 15 percent in the controls. Only 10 percent of the CPV subjects could be classified as normospermic compared with 60 percent in the controls. The incidence of severe disturbances in sperm quality and azoospermia was also four times greater in the CPV group. Neither the degree of leukospermia nor the ultrasonographic findings could predict the extent of the disturbance in sperm quality.

 

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