I. ABOUT SCI.MED.PROSTATE.PROSTATITIS
The newsgroup alt.support.prostate.prostatitis was founded in
the summer of 1994 as a forum for those interested in the causes
and treatment of prostatitis. Besides that, it has become a center
for discussion of political and public awareness actions we can
take to work towards finding cures for chronic prostatitis. Because
some servers have blocked all alt. newsgroups the name was changed
in 1995 to sci.med.prostate.prostatitis.
This list was not intended for the discussion of prostate cancer
or benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) (see section 3). Prostate
cancer is discussed in the group sci.med.prostate.cancer. BPH
is discussed in sci.med.prostate.bph. Recently there has been
some blurring of the distinction between prostatitis and BPH and
there is some indication that these may be different phases of
the same disease. BPH sufferers are therefore urged to monitor
Those interested in discussing other medical topics should use
the sci.med newsgroup or the appropriate alt.support newsgroup.
II. ABOUT THIS FAQ
An initial draft of this FAQ was prepared by John Koch in November
1994. This FAQ is not an official statement of policy, and even
less a statement of absolute truth. It is meant simply to orient
newcomers. This FAQ was extensively revised by Ron Kinner in Jan
This FAQ also includes a Glossary which defines words and abbreviations
often seen in the newsgroup or at the doctor's office. If your
question is not found in the index then check the Glossary for
key words. In an attempt to reduce download times the glossary
may be stored separately from this FAQ.
This FAQ will be posted to sci.med.prostate.prostatitis on or
about the 1st and 15th of every month.
Corrections and amplifications to this FAQ should be sent to email@example.com.
Questions about statements made in the FAQ are welcome, but are
likely to be more productive if posted to the newsgroup for discussion
by the group.
This FAQ was last updated Jan 31, 1997.
III. WHAT AND WHERE IS THE PROSTATE?
The prostate is part of male sexual anatomy. It is a walnut-sized
gland which surrounds part of the urethra (the "tube"
that carries urine from the bladder to the penis). The prostate
is located approximately 2 inches inward from the anus.
The prostate is made up of many small glands which are connected
together like small bunches of grapes. There are somewhere between
20 and 60 of these bunches called acini in the prostate. Each
bunch connects to the urethra.
The prostate has several functions.
It manufactures and stores a portion of the seminal fluid
in the acini. This fluid provides lubrication, protects the sperm,
and has an antibacterial effect.
It blocks the flow of urine during sex and insures that the
seminal fluid flows in the correct direction.
It delivers its portion (1/6) of seminal fluid during sex
by contraction of the smooth muscle in the prostate.
It acts as a junction for seminal fluid produced by the seminal
vesicles and testicles. The ejaculatory ducts which combine these
outputs pass through the prostate to the urethra.
During ejaculation, contractions of the smooth muscle in the prostate
force the fluid out of the acini and into the urethra where it
mixes with the secretions from the seminal vesicles, the testicles,
and other glands and is carried to the tip of the penis. Prior
to ejaculation, ringlike muscles in the part of the prostate closest
to the bladder will tighten to prevent urine from flowing and
to insure that the ejaculant goes where it should and does not
pass into the bladder.
The prostate provides around one sixth part of the seminal fluid.
(Around four sixths of the fluid comes from the two seminal vesicles
located slightly above and to the left and right of the prostate.
(These can also become infected.) The remainder of the fluid is
made up of secretions from other small glands in the urethra with
only one percent coming from the testicles.)
There are three bad things which can happen to the prostate:
- -prostate cancer. A cancerous tumor may appear in the
prostate. Normally these are very slow growing and often if discovered
late in life, the attitude is something else will probably kill
you before it does, so don't worry about it. Quickly increasing
readings on the PSA test (over a period of several months) may
indicate the presence of cancer. A TRUS and biopsy may be performed
to be sure. (In Germany there was some controversy about the wisdom
of a biopsy. One doctor (who was shouted down by his peers) suggested
that a biopsy might actually cause the cancer to spread by releasing
cancerous cells into the blood. Biopsies have also been known
to introduce bacteria into the prostate. A recent study of removed
prostates shows that often the cells around a biopsy puncture
The most common treatment is surgical removal of the prostate
and the seminal vesicles. This makes many men impotent and some
may have problems with urine leakage. A new treatment using three
X-ray beams appears to be just as effective and have fewer side
effects. Other treatments which may be used to fight the cancer
or prevent its growth are implantation of radioactive beads, chemotherapy,
removal of the testicles (Orchiectomy), radiation, and drugs such
as PROSCAR which prevent the body from using testosterone. For
more information on prostate cancer see the newsgroup sci.med.prostate.cancer,
the website athttp:///www.prostate.com ,
and the Glossary entries for PSA and Prostate Cancer.
-- benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), which is a non-cancerous
increase in size of the prostate. This increase in size impacts
the urethra and can partially or totally block urine flow. It
appears that some cases of BPH may be forms of prostatitis. Patients
with the same symptoms are often diagnosed with prostatitis if
they are under 50 and with BPH if they are older. There is also
speculation that untreated prostatitis can eventually become BPH.
There is a newsgroup: sci.med.prostate.bph. See also Glossary
entries for BPH, Saw Palmetto, Alpha 1 Blockers, TURP, TUNA, TULIP.
-- prostatitis, which is an inflammation of the prostate
or a pain in the prostate similar to that caused by an inflammation
(see sections IV & VII).
IV. WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PROSTATITIS?
There are a variety of symptoms and problems associated with prostatitis.
Each case seems to be different and each sufferer can have a different
list of symptoms and problems. Most men will not have all of the
symptoms at one time. The symptoms can be continual or they may
come and go. Some men may have prostatitis and not have any of
the symptoms. Many of the symptoms can be caused by other diseases
so a doctor should be consulted.
A. Urinary problems(The first 14 of these are caused by
the swollen prostate partially blocking the urethra and are common
pain when urinating
difficulty in starting urination
difficulty in completely emptying the bladder
waking at night one or more times to urinate
interruptions during urination (stop and start)
dribbling or difficulty in stopping cleanly (large wet spot
frequent bladder/kidney infections
blood in the urine
dehydration (caused by attempting to reduce the frequency
by cutting back on fluid intake)
itching sensation at the tip of the penis
burning sensation between the legs
sand like particles in urine
B. Pain/ache/discomfort(Besides the pain caused by the
swollen prostate, there are several nerves which pass through
the area and which can be stimulated by the pressure of the swollen
prostate. This results in pain which may be far removed from the
prostate (referred pain). Also the infection can spread into the
epididymides (the spiral ducting from the testicles to the vas
deferens) and into the testicles and seminal vesicles:
centered in the perineum (the area between the anus and the
base of the penis)
in the penis
in one or both testicles (with or without swelling)
in the scrotum
in the lower stomach
in the lower back.
just above the anus
before, during or after ejaculation.
during bowel movements
when riding a bike
C. Sexual problems. (Besides the obvious problem that it
is hard to enjoy sex when ejaculation (or arousal) causes pain
several major blood vessels run through the area and may be constricted
making it hard to have or maintain an erection.) Several of the
popular drugs which may be prescribed by a doctor in an attempt
to increase urine flow (notably Hytrin and Proscar) can both have
adverse effects on your sex life. Some women have reported burning
sensations from their partner's semen. Premature ejaculation has
also been reported.
D. Fertility problems.Sperm count and mobility can be
seriously reduced by prostatitis. The sperm must pass through
a narrow duct in order to get to the urethra. This narrow passage
can be squeezed shut by the swelling in the prostate. The prostatic
secretion of an infected prostate is much thicker and its pH varies
considerably from the normal value. This has a detrimental effect
on the mobility of sperm. If the infection spreads to the epididymides
these may become blocked with pus or scar tissue.
E. Psychological problems:These may just be caused by
the frustration of being told that it's all in your head or that
nothing can be done so just live with it or there may be some
hormonal imbalance at work.
F. Miscellaneous Problems:
Urine smells strong or bad
Semen smells bad
Semen appears lumpy or yellowish
Discoloration of the penis
Semen volume low
Retrograde ejaculation (usually as a side effect of treatment.)
Blood in semen
G. Chills and fever.(Generally only in the acute form) THIS IS A MEDICAL EMERGENCY!Get medical help immediately.
V. HOW IS PROSTATITIS DISTINGUISHED FROM BPH
AND PROSTATE CANCER?
Some of the same symptoms may be caused by BPH or prostate cancer
To tell the difference, a doctor will usually perform a digital
rectal exam(putting a rubber-gloved finger up the rectum to feel
the outside of the prostate for lumps, hardness, and size) and
order a PSA blood test. (See "What is a DRE" and the
Glossary entry for PSA).
In some cases where the PSA is very high (Generally over 4.0 is
the usual rule of thumb though this may vary depending upon the
patient's age or race.) or appears to be climbing steadily, a
TRUS and biopsy may be scheduled to rule out prostate cancer.
(See "What is a TRUS" elsewhere in this FAQ.)
If cancer is not indicated by the results of the DRE, PSA, TRUS,
or biopsy but the prostate is enlarged prostatitis or BPH can
be assumed to be the problem. If the problem is confined to urinary
tract symptoms (see above) and the patient is over a certain age
(it appears 50 is the magic number per Dr. O'Leary at Harvard)
then the patient is told he has BPH. Otherwise he has prostatitis.
Kohnen and Drach found some inflammation in 98% of 162 surgically
resected hyperplastic [BPH] prostates so the possibility that
most if not all BPH is (or originates with) prostatitis can not
be ruled out.
A cystoscopy, in which a tube is inserted through the penis to
look at the prostate from the inside is sometimes done to determine
if there is inflammation or some physical blockage. (See "What
is a Cystoscopy" elsewhere in this FAQ).
During a digital rectal exam (DRE), the doctor
may press on the prostate to force out some of the fluid; the
fluid can be examined for signs of infection. See "What is
a DRE" and "Why should the EPS be Cultured?" The
presence of white blood cells in the EPS is considered a definite
sign of prostatitis, however, absence of white blood cells does
not mean that prostatitis is not present. The acini can be so
badly clogged that none of the EPS comes from infected acini.
It sometimes takes several prostate drainages before the white
blood cell count becomes significant.
VI. HOW COMMON IS PROSTATITIS?
It is estimated that at least 40% of men's visits to urologists
are caused by prostatitis. It can affect young men, while BPH
and prostate cancer are more typical of older men. Because prostatitis
varies in severity and because it has attracted little attention
from researchers, no one knows how many men suffer from it but
the usual statistic quoted is that over 50% of all men will suffer
from it sometime in their life.
VII. ARE THERE DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTATITIS?
Most discussion of prostatitis divides it into four types. However,
they are often hard to tell apart, and the dividing lines are
often not clear. The general feeling in the newsgroup is that
they are all aspects of the same disease.
Acute bacterial prostatitis comes on quickly, can cause intense
pain, fever, and chills, can require hospitalization, but is usually
"cured" quickly with antibiotics. (Some newsgroup members
have reported that their supposedly cured acute bacterial prostatitis
turned chronic after the cure.)
Chronic bacterial prostatitis is less intense, but is not cured
quickly by antibiotics alone. Examination of the urine and prostatic
fluid, particularly via the Meares and Stamey technique or the
Feliciano technique, indicate that disease-causing bacteria and/or
fungi are present in the prostate. The condition may clear up
after several months of antibiotics, or it may not. Often after
treatment with antibiotics alone the condition will go dormant
for a while then return immune to the original antibiotic.
The symptoms of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis are the same,
but no disease-causing bacteria can be identified via the Meares
and Stamey technique. Signs of inflammation are seen. The Feliciano
technique often reveals the presence of bacteria or fungi in these
In prostatodynia (which means simply "prostate pain"),
there is no sign of inflammation, even though there is pain in
the prostate. The Feliciano technique often reveals the presence
of bacteria or fungi in these cases.
VIII. WHAT CAUSES PROSTATITIS?
There are many theories about the causes of prostatitis. The most
popular theory among the members of the newsgroup is Dr. Feliciano's.
His theories are, however, not yet widely accepted by urologists
in the US.
Per Dr. Feliciano, prostatitis is usually caused by an infection
of the prostate. Sometimes the infection is caused by common bacteria
and fungi which are usually considered benign. The infective agent
can be acquired in a variety of ways: Sex, poor hygiene, contamination
during an operation, swimming in polluted water, or some other
unknown mechanism. Dr. Feliciano believes that the bacteria and
fungi which cause prostatitis can be passed back and forth between
sexual partners so that both should be treated at the same time.
The prostate has some 20-50 smaller fluid producing glands called
acini. Per Dr. Feliciano when an infective agent enters an acinus,
the acinus quickly becomes blocked. It is not clear whether this
is an attempt by the body to isolate the infection or a side effect
of the infection.
The infected acinus, once blocked, begins to swell as fluid accumulates.
The infection and swelling of a single acinus may not be noticeable.
Only when the number of infected acini reaches a certain percentage
of the total does it seem that the infection begin to cause problems.
Note that each acinus can be infected individually so that there
may be more than one infectious agent involved.
There is some speculation that in some men the infection happens
so slowly that the prostate and the surrounding tissue and nerves
are able to adjust and the only symptoms may be a slightly restricted
urine flow. This restriction may happen so gradually that the
patient does not realize that anything is wrong. This is likely
to be diagnosed as BPH especially if the patient is over 50.
In others, when the infection spreads more rapidly, the swelling
is more sudden and the effect can be quite painful.
When all of the infected acini are not completely clogged they
may leak a caustic fluid which causes a burning sensation in the
urethra and may account for the sexual partner's complaints of
semen causing a burning or itching sensation.
Once clogged the acini seldom unclog on their own even if the
body manages to defeat the trapped bacteria. The body attempts
to fight the bacteria by coating them with calcium much like an
oyster coats a grain of sand to make a pearl. These calcium coated
bacteria can combine into a prostate stone or may, if the acinus
opens for some reason (perhaps after a DRE or a hard bowel movement
which actually massages the prostate), be added to the urine where
they give the appearance of sand in the urine. Other plugs can
form made up of solidified prostatic fluid and urine.
The fluid from infected acini is also much thicker and has a pH
value much different than normal. This and any blockage of the
ejaculatory ducts caused by the swelling can reduce sperm count
A recent study (J. C. Nickel & J. W. Costerton (Department
of Urology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.) Bacterial
localization in antibiotic-refractory chronic bacterial prostatitis.
Prostate 23: 107-14 (1993) of biopsies of prostatitis
patients) revealed "
exopolysaccharide coated microcolonies
of bacteria firmly attached to the ductal and acinar walls. This
implies that even unblocked acini can harbor bacteria which are
protected from antibiotics by a sugar like coating and may explain
why the disease is so hard to treat.
A second theory, based on the discovery that only housebroken
dogs have prostatitis, is that holding the urine damages the prostate
in some way. The assumption is that pressure builds up and forces
urine backwards into the acini where it combines with prostatic
secretions to cause clogs to form. The urine can also carry bacteria
into the prostate. This flow of urine backwards into the acini
is called reflux. Lending additional support to this theory is
the fact that a drug used for gout sufferers, allopurinol, is
sometimes helpful in the treatment of prostatitis.
A third theory, based on the fact that certain middle European
countries where the diet is high in zinc have much lower levels
of prostatitis, is that a zinc deficiency reduces the prostate's
ability to resist an infection.
A fourth theory, based on the fact that prostatitis was once known
as the monk's disease, is that a sudden reduction in the average
number of ejaculations per time period or a complete stoppage
of ejaculations can lead to "old" prostatic secretions
hardening and forming clogs. As monks were also prone to long
vigils the reflux theory may also have some support here. Recent
information is that new recruits into the armed forces are prone
to prostatitis. Whether this is because the sudden enforced celibacy
and lack of privacy (making masturbation difficult) causes the
problem or whether the sudden opportunity to "visit ladies
of the evening" when given a pass into town increases the
chance of infection is not known.
A fifth theory is that many cases of prostatitis are caused by
auto-immune reactions. Auto-immune prostatitis has been demonstrated
in laboratory animals.
Anatomical problems have also been cited as the cause in a few
patients. A stricture (narrowing of the urethra) can cause symptoms
which mimic prostatitis. Overly tight sphincter muscles have also
The real cause of prostatitis may be some mixture of all of the
above and may vary for each patient. The one thing we are sure
of is that it is not "
all in your head."
XIX. CAN PROSTATITIS BE CURED?
Dr. Feliciano, a physician in the Philippines who has successfully
treated several of the newsgroup members along with some 4000
Filipino sufferers, believes most (if not all) prostatitis (and
most BPH)is caused by an infection. He has developed a special
adaptation of the usual DRE which he calls "prostate drainage."
This drainage has two purposes: 1. It provides a sample of the
infectious agent for culturing and 2. It opens the acini and allows
them to get rid of the infected material while at the same time
allowing fresh antibiotic laden fluid to enter.
He cultures the prostatic fluid and then prescribes one or more
antibiotics or antifungals based on the results of the culture.
He also continues culturing the fluid throughout the treatment
in order to see whether a different antibiotic or antifungal might
He believes the EPS should be completely sterile so that any bacteria
found (no matter how benign or common they are thought to be elsewhere
in or on the body) may be the cause of the infection. Throughout
the course of the antibiotic treatment, he continues his drainage
technique. When the White Blood Cell (WBC) count drops to zero
and the cultures come out clean the patient is considered cured.
In most cases all symptoms of prostatitis disappear during the
treatment and do not return.
The Feliciano treatment is not widely known or accepted. Some
members of the newsgroup reported complete cures after visiting
Dr. Feliciano. Others have reported only partial or no relief
A number of the men who made the long trip to the Philippines
were part of a scientific study to determine how good Dr. Feliciano's
treatment really is. The results of the study will be released
in the near future.
In the meantime, several of the members of the prostatitis newsgroup
have developed their own variations of Dr. Felciano's treatment.
Ron has been doing the drainage by himself with no antibiotics
and reports that the symptoms have gone away and the prostate
has shrunk considerably. He has created a Do It Yourself Prostate
Massage FAQ which is available on the prostatitis website or go
straight to: http://www.prostatitis.org/doityourself.html
Scott who started about the same time but who had a friendly doctor
who prescribed a combination of Augmentin and Bactrim and arranged
for cultures reports that he considers himself completely cured
but plans to continue the drainages for a while just to be sure.
Ken and John and many other members have loving spouses who are
willing to do the drainage for them. Ken reports no cure but a
definite relief of symptoms. John, too, is feeling better.
Mike has found a commercial product "the Crystal Clear Wand"
which allows even a man with short arms to drain his own prostate.
He reports a big improvement. John's wife says the wand makes
Though not yet widespread the full Felicano treatment of prostatic
drainage, EPS culturing, and using sensitivity testing for antibiotic
selection is now available in certain areas of the United States.
The following is a selection of other treatments which have been
reported by members of the newsgroup to be of some use. Usually
more detailed information is available in the glossary:
Antibiotics:A wide selection of antibiotics have been
tried. Sometimes they help, sometimes they don't and sometimes
they help for a while and then don't do anything. See the glossary
for information on the various antibiotics which are used against
prostatitis. NOTE: Dr. Feliciano is strongly against the use of
any antibiotics without the accompanying drainage and sensitivity
testing. He believes (and his experience with members of the newsgroup
certainly seems to back up his belief) that use of antibiotics
without the drainage just results in antibiotic resistant infections
which are harder to cure.
Anti-inflammatory steroid drugs: Sometimes Prednisone or
other anti-inflammatory drugs are given in the belief that if
the inflammation can be reduced the problem may go away. Generally
have no effect but there have been reports of "cures."
Antifungals: Diflucan is the most commonly used antifungal
drugs. Per Dr. Feliciano, antibiotics pave the way for a fungal
infection by killing off the bacteria which normally hold them
in check. He prescribes Diflucan routinely, usually in the end
phase of the treatment, in order to prevent a fungal infection
of the prostate. Fungal infections of the prostate often reveal
themselves by sores which form near the tip of the penis, especially
in men with intact foreskin. Sometimes the foreskin becomes painful
Saw Palmetto Extract: Provides relief in many men for BPH
type symptoms such as weak stream, urgency, nocturnia.
Zinc supplements:The role of zinc in prostate health is
unclear. The prostate is one of the big users of zinc but additional
zinc in the diet does not seem to show up in prostatic secretions
when prostatitis is present. May have more benefit as a preventive
than a treatment.
Chinese Herbs:Recently several sufferers have reported
that certain Chinese herb preparations (Kai Kit Wan, Sexoton)have
been of use. The theory is that something in them opens the acini
and allows them to drain more easily. Jim who is undergoing long
term drainage from his doctor reports that after he took them,
his doctor reported that the prostate seemed smaller and easier
to drain than before. There is a page on the website dedicated
to Chinese herbs.
Tranquilizers:Valium and other common tranquilizers are
often prescribed in the belief that stress is a factor in prostatitis.
Sometimes there is some benefit but this may be more the result
of lowered blood pressure. See alpha-blockers in the glossary.
Alpha-blockers: Originally developed to lower blood pressure
it was found that as a side effect many also reduce the tension
of smooth muscle in the prostate thus resulting in better flow
rates and a more complete emptying of the bladder. Hytrin. Cardura.
Surgery:Generally not recommended for prostatitis except
for the removal of strictures downstream from the prostate. Unless
the complete prostate is removed the problem usually remains and
may get worse as scarring of the acinus openings into the urethra
may result in more clogging and swelling instead of less.
Microwaves:Results are similar to surgery.
Balloon Dilation:Provides symptomatic relief of urinary
flow restriction. A balloon type device is inserted in the urethra
via the penis opening and positioned in the narrowed area where
it is expanded. This opens up the passage and improves flow. However,
effects are usually temporary.
X. WHAT CAN BE DONE TO ALLEVIATE SYMPTOMS?
When prostatitis is not cured, several things can be done to help
alleviate symptoms. Not all of them work for everyone, and the
best techniques for you must be found through trial and error.
Water:It is important to drink plenty of water. The natural
reaction to urgency and frequency problems is to cut back on fluid
intake. However, this is a mistake. You risk dehydration and the
urine becomes so strong that a bladder infection is more likely.
Drinking lots of fluid keeps the retained urine in the bladder
fairly dilute and reduces the risk of bladder infection and dehydration.
Prostate Drainage:Draining the prostate regularly can
often provide some or complete relief of symptoms. (XIX)
Dietary changes:Caffeine, alcohol, spicy foods and/or
acidic foods may irritate the prostate, and most doctors recommend
either eliminating them or using them very lightly. Some doctors
recommend the Gillespie diet used in cases of interstitial cystitis,
which avoids acidic foods such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
(See the book, _Living with Cystitis_, by Dr. Lauren Gillespie.)
Several newsgroup readers claim yeast reduction diets have helped
Avoid decongestants and antihistamines:Sudafed, Tavist-D,
Contact, Afrin etc. are all labeled with warnings in fine print
not to use if you have an enlarged prostate or BPH. This warning
should be written in large letters on the front of the package.
These appear to cause the prostate to contract which decreases
urine flow. There is also some evidence that they tend to make
the prostatic secretion thicker and more prone to forming clogs.
Exercise:Often walking will help.
Frequent ejaculation:Frequent ejaculation (2-3 times per
week) is recommended in many sources, particularly when using
Hot sitz baths:.Hot sitz baths, in which the perineum
is bathed in a pan of very hot water for at least 20 minutes,
seem to reduce pain in many cases.
Avoid constipation:Large hard bowel movements can press
on a swollen prostrate and cause considerable pain. Eat more bran
(found in any bran cereal and in most whole grain bread) and try
to train yourself to be as regular as possible. Note: Some men
have reported that a large hard movement, while painful at the
time, actually brought some relief of symptoms. It is thought
that the hard movement acts as a sort of primitive prostate massage
and promotes drainage.
Analgesics:Over-the-counter analgesics (aspirin, Tylenol,
Nuprin, Aleve, etc.) may help control pain.
Stress reduction:Symptoms can worsen because of psychological
stress, and changing your situation to avoid stress and reduce
blood pressure, meditation or biofeedback techniques have helped
Ice:Ice packs sometimes help when heat doesn't. Several
readers have even been told by their doctors to put an ice cube
into water until it has lost its sharpness and shrunk to a reasonable
size and then insert the ice into their rectum. They report hours
of relief from the pain.
Chinese Herbs:Kai Kit Wan and Sexoton are sometimes helpful.http://www.prostatitis.org/chinesepills.html .
Acupuncture:A few readers have found some relief through
Antidepressants:Prescription antidepressants, taken daily
at a level lower than that normally prescribed for real cases
of depression, have also helped in some cases.
Other alternative herbs and treatments:See the Alternative
XI. WHY IS THIS NEWSGROUP NECESSARY?
Compared with prostate cancer, prostatitis has had little attention
from researchers. It is not life-threatening, and it is difficult
to treat. Most urologists are unwilling to put much effort into
determining its causes and providing treatment. We hope to use
this forum to push for further research on prostatitis, with a
view to finding cures by the year 2000.
Many men are embarrassed by the problems caused by prostatitis,
and put off seeing doctors or discussing the problems with friends
and family. This newsgroup is a place where we can exchange information
and help make each other's lives a little easier.
XII. HOW CAN WE WORK TOWARDS A CURE?
Call, write, or email your Congress Member or Senator. Tell him
or her how badly research into the causes and treatment of prostatitis
Many now have their own webpages with email links:
To find the master list of House member's pages, go to:
Senate addresses are at:
Support the Prostatitis Foundation with a (US tax deductible)
680 South Federal St., Suite 601
Chicago IL 60605
In May, 1995, members of this newsgroup founded The Prostatitis
Foundation. Relying on volunteers the foundation is working to
increase research into this ignored disease and provides a clearing
house for prostatitis related information. The foundation provides
the website at http://www.prostatitis.org which
currently contains more than 10 megabytes of information on prostatitis
including an archive of all significant postings to the newsgroup.
Illinois State President - DadOfSix@aol.com
Wisconsin President - Maverick@msn.fullfeed.com
Artist and Production Manager - Oahu67@msn.fullfeed.com
Keeper of FAQ - JohnnK@aol.com and firstname.lastname@example.org
Brad Hennenfent, MD, FACEP
680 S. Federal St., Suite 601
Chicago, IL 60605
Telephone: (312) 554-0629
Fax: (312) 786-9437
XIII.WHAT IS A DRE?
A DRE (Digital Rectal Examination) is a procedure where the doctor
inserts his finger (the Digit) in the patient's anus (the entrance
to the Rectum) in order to feel the condition of the prostate.
While this sounds rather uncomfortable it is not as bad as it
sounds, especially if you know what to expect.
The patient drops his underpants and bends over the examination
table resting on his elbows. Some doctors believe it makes the
whole procedure a little easier if the patient stands with his
feet turned so that the toes are inward (pigeon-toed) and may
so instruct the patient. While the patient is getting comfortable
the doctor puts on a latex glove and applies a large amount of
KY jelly to the index finger. The index finger is applied to the
target area and slowly pushed inside.
Once the finger is inserted as far as it will go the doctor presses
downward and moves his or her finger around to judge the size,
shape, and degree of firmness of the prostate. It is also possible
to detect small nodules or growths which may indicate the presence
of cancer. The doctor will usually ask if the pressure on the
prostate hurts. The patient should reply as truthfully as possible.
This is not the place for male stoicism! A painful, swollen, prostate
may have an abscess which could make further examination very
The doctor should (but many unfortunately do not, preferring instead
to immediately prescribe an antibiotic and get on to their next
patient) next press hard enough to force some prostatic fluid
out for further tests. It is important not to tense up during
this procedure. The patient may feel like he is about to urinate
all over the nice clean floor but this will not happen. He may
feel a few drops of prostatic fluid moving up the penis and if
the doctor presses hard enough a few drops may actually land on
the floor. The doctor expects this to happen and will be pleased
and not annoyed or angry. (I wish doctors would put a paper towel
or something on the floor to catch any "spillage" and
explain what they are trying to do but most seem to think the
patient already knows and we men like to pretend we already know
it all so we don't ask. It was not until my 6th DRE that I finally
understood what the doctor was trying to do and that was only
after he complained about not getting any EPS. And I was so proud
of holding it back and not making a mess on the floor! Oops!)
The patient should relax as much as possible and allow the fluid
to come out. The doctor will usually collect this fluid either
on a microscope slide, on a swab, or in a small jar. This is the
same EPS which Dr. Feliciano's drainage method attempts to get.
When the examination is completed the patient is given a box of
tissues and is expected to wipe off the excess jelly before pulling
his underpants back up. Some doctors will immediately examine
the specimen under a microscope to see if there are any white
blood cells (WBC). This is generally considered a sign that there
may be an infection present.
Ideally the fluid will be sent to a lab for culturing and sensitivity
testing to determine first, what the pathogen is, and second,
which antibiotics can kill it. It may take up to a week or more
to get the results of the culturing.
XIV. IS THERE SOME WAY TO MAKE BIKE RIDING
Suggestions from fellow prostatitis sufferers who still ride:
Jonathon: Try the seats with cushions only on the outside. Often
sold for women bikers.
Ken: Keep the saddle tilted down in front as far as it will go.
Terry TSI and Serfa seats work for me.
Elliot: Use after market gel pads. Also try a light hard seat.
Someone else suggested trying one of the bikes you ride laying
XV. IS THERE SOME WAY TO MAKE SITTING MORE
Doughnut cushions are recommended by many sufferers. These were
originally designed for hemorrhoid sufferers but work well for
prostatitis too. Usually available at drugstores and pharmacies
for a nominal cost these come in foam and inflatable versions.
Other sufferers say a hard chair is easier on the prostate.
XVI. WHAT HAPPENS DURING A TRUS?
A TRUS (TransRectal UltraSound) uses ultrasound to check the prostate
for tumors and cysts. This is a common test which you may experience
at your doctor's office. Really not much worse than a DRE.
The following is an excerpt from a posting to the newsgroup in
which a fellow sufferer shares his experience:
Jim: I went in the room with the ultrasound machine, and the nurse
asked me to sign a consent for the ultrasound and another for
a biopsy. I said, wait a minute, I'm a motivated patient and I'll
undergo any pain, but a biopsy doesn't seem appropriate. We want
to try to get rid of bacteria already in the prostate, not introduce
new ones. She went and spoke to the doctor and came back and said,
OK, no biopsy. She said usually when they do the ultrasound, they're
looking for cancer, etc. I mention all this because it speaks
to two newsgroup themes: the nurse is not accustomed to taking
prostatitis seriously, and the more the patient knows and speaks
up, the better. In this case, I don't think the doc planned to
do a biopsy.
He came in at this point and I commented something about giving
him the manila folder before he scrubbed. He said he wasn't going
to scrub, his hands were probably a lot cleaner than my rectum.
The ultrasound probe did not look quite Dr. Tarfusser's cartoon.
It was like a stick with a knob, kind of like the grip end of
a baseball bat, but only a couple centimeters on the largest diameter
of the ellipsoidal knob. The screen of the electronics showed
the doc's name and mine. So, I stripped to an undershirt and got
on the table with butts toward the electronics. The doc came back,
I tried to relax. Somebody put a condom (or similar) over the
probe, then some slippery goo, then the doc maneuvered the knob
into the rectum.
I felt just a moment of pain and then it was your basic weird
medical experience. I asked the doc if I could have a picture,
he said yes. Then he spent quite a while scanning different things.
The instrument had a flat keyboard (waterproof, cleanable). He
worked the probe with his right hand, commented that he couldn't
type very fast with just the left hand. So, he's working this
thing around, then stopping to go tap-a-tap with the other hand,
I guess reaching across. We chat pleasantly about what he sees:
a small cyst (not sure about the term) on a seminal vesicle that
he might treat if the drainage, etc, doesn't cure me. Big stones
near the urethra, including some in "the front" of the
prostate where he says the massage can't reach. (I'm not clear
what this means.) But apparently there are some stones that might
yield to crushing and pushing them out. He also sees a small anomaly
in the prostate (abscess?) that is apparently a cancer candidate
("food for thought," he says). In the end, he decides
there is no cancer or cyst that will prevent us from proceeding
with the drainages.
XVII WHAT HAPPENS DURING A CYSTOSCOPY AND WHY
SHOULD I HAVE ONE?
A cystoscopy uses a flexible fiber optic device which is inserted
into the urethra via the opening at the end of the penis. It allows
the doctor to visually examine the complete length of the urethra
plus the bladder for polyps, strictures, abnormal growths and
For a male this is probably the scariest test there is. The thought
of having something pushed down that little hole in the penis
makes the skin crawl but as the following posters agree it is
not that bad in practice. However, do insist on the most sterile
settings and procedures. It is possible to introduce bacteria
into your bladder and prostate this way. Patients are usually
given a 3 day course of a powerful antibiotic to prevent an infection.
This is important so insist on it.
John: I've had this numerous times. The first two were under anesthesia.
The last few have been office procedures with local deadening.
My experience has not been as bad as it may sound. It's not that
there is *no* pain or discomfort. There is, but it isn't anywhere
My office procedures have gone as follows.
(1) A nurse gives a betadine wash, then inserts some deadener
into the urethra, puts a clamp in place, and leaves for 15 minutes
or so. The insertion of the deadener may be the most uncomfortable
part of the whole procedure, but it doesn't take very long and
it isn't all that bad.
(2) During the cysto itself, I have been uncomfortable but not
in much pain. Again, this doesn't take very long - a few minutes
- perhaps less than 5.
(3) You may have a little blood on urinating, and possibly a little
pain, for a few days.
Roger: I have had two cysto's. Since I have other kidney problems
addition to my prostatitis, then for me they are merited.
If you have a problem, even if it turns out to be only prostatitis,
then you need to have the proper check-up. You need to know what
is going on in there. The cysto will check for physical problems,
obstructions, stones, etc.
Is it painful? No, only for the ego. I found it deeply embarassing
and for my second trip, I elected to be put under. After the drugs
wear off, your first few urinations will be A LOT OF FUN!
The cysto did nothing for me related to prostatitis, but just
eliminated cancer and urethral obstructions.
Ed: in my case, cystoscopy turned out to be of the utmost importance
and benefit as it disclosed a malignant polyp in my bladder which
had simulated very well the symptoms of BPH and/or prostatitis.
There was no blood in my urine which is a classic indicator of
bladder cancer. According to my urologist, the urine test for
cancer was negative prior to the cystoscopy.
So, I cast a definite vote for having it done. It is not comfortable
but not as bad as you think it will be. Good luck!
Don: I've had cystoscopic exams every three months for the past
four years because of a recurring bladder cancer. IT IS VITAL
THAT YOU DETERMINE IN ADVANCE WHAT KIND OF EQUIPMENT YOUR UROLOGIST
If he uses a flexible telescoping cystoscope, the process is psychologically
demeaning, but painless. (Stretching a stricture is not painless,
but I know it can often be done quickly in a doctor's office and
kept open by occasional restretching.)
If he has a rigid cystoscope RUN, do not walk, to another urologist;
I found those agony.
In either case, I found it is important to drink a lot and keep
the urine dilute to avoid discomfort on urination. When I tried
not to drink, so I didn't have to urinate, it really hurt when
I did for the first day. Now I drink a lot of iced tea and pee
away without discomfort.
Be sure to get a good antibiotic for a 2-3 days following a cystoscopic
exam. Avoids infection from the process.
Really, with a flexible telescoping cystoscope it is no big deal.
WV: An attempted cystoscopy was unsuccessful because of a narrowing
or stricture at the bladder neck which prevented entry into the
bladder and revealed that the stricture was indeed the cause of
Once the stricture was relieved via mechanical dilation the prostatitis
symptoms were gone and a normal cystoscopy was possible without
It's my (largely uninformed) opinion that many prostate symptoms
are caused by strictures, especially at the bladder neck, and
can be easily eased with dilation or a quick transurethral "snip"
by a good urodoc. Mine has suggested such a procedure but so far
I have opted for periodic "stretches" and not the knife.
The "flex" scopes which are now used are virtually painless
...unlike the old "iron bar of a few years ago. I think it
should be used early on to look for scarring, strictures and other
problems in the urethra that could be causing the symptoms. I
believe these are quite common and largely overlooked until late
in the diagnosis process. In my case it was after 8 months of
Bactrim and floxin that they decided to scope it. All those months
of discomfort and worry when it was something simple all along.
XVIII WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT PROSTATITIS
While it is too late for most of us, many of us have sons or brothers
who we would like to save from this disease. Those who do find
a cure are also interested in not catching it again. The following
suggestions are based on a combination of Dr. Feliciano's theory
of the causes of prostatitis and on some other material discovered
during research for this FAQ.
Good hygiene is a must. Always use clean underwear and bathe or
shower daily. If not circumcised, the foreskin should be pushed
back and the glans washed daily. Wash hands BEFORE handling the
penis and after using the toilet.
Never swim or bathe in polluted water.
Avoid unprotected sex. Use condoms at all times. If you don't
use a condom, limit exposure to E coli bacteria by avoiding the
anal area of your partner. (Make sure you and your partner have
bathed or showered since the last bowel movements. Dr. Feliciano
recommends a betadine wash once daily to prevent a recurrence
in his cured patients.) Urinate soon after sex. Never have unprotected
sex with anyone suffering from a urinary tract, bladder, or kidney
infection, interstitial cystosis, venereal disease, or yeast infection.
Keep up your body's resistance by making sure you have enough
zinc, copper, and vitamin C in your system. (Note: White spots
on the fingernails are considered a sure sign of a zinc deficiency.)
Drink plenty of fluids and void them as soon as you feel the urge.
Do not try and hold it because it is not convenient.
Exercise and get enough sleep.
Avoid the use of over-the-counter and prescription cold and allergy
medicines which have a warning not to use with enlarged prostate,
prostatitis, or BPH. These may contribute to acini clogging.
Have an ejaculation at least two or three times a week even if
you have to masturbate. If your arms are long enough to do a DRE
on yourself, learn to inspect and drain your own prostate. Regular
drainage may keep the acini from clogging up and becoming infected.
Know the early signs of prostate trouble and get treatment immediately.
(Slower urination, more frequent urination, waking regularly at
night to urinate, bad/strong smelling urine, increase in wet spot
XIX WHAT IS PROSTATE DRAINAGE AND WHY DOES
The prostate is made up of many small glands called acini. Normally
these produce and store a small amount of fluid and the overproduction
is allowed to drain into the urethra where it is thought to perform
an important antibacterial service. During an ejaculation the
stored fluid is forced out by contractions of the smooth muscle
of the prostate.
If an acinus becomes clogged, for whatever reason, it no longer
has any way to get rid of the overproduction, but continues to
produce fluid. This cause the pressure inside of the acinus to
increase so that the acinus gradually begins to fill up and expand
like a balloon. Eventually the limit of expansion is reached and
the acinus becomes hard like a ball with too much air pumped into
One bloated acinus probably has little effect since they are very
small but when enough become clogged the inside of the prostate
gets crowded and the urethra which passes through the prostate
begins to feel the effect.
Prostate drainage is a method of relieving the pressure by forcing
the acini to drain thus relieving the pressure. The principle
is very similar to squeezing a pimple to open the pore.
Prostate drainage appears outwardly like a DRE. The same position
is assumed by both parties. The main difference is that instead
of lightly pressing on the prostate, the doctor puts as much pressure
as he or she can (or as much as the patient can stand whichever
is less) on a small area of the prostate. Starting at the far
(most inside) left (or right) as much pressure as possible is
applied to the prostate. The gloved finger is then moved slowly
to the center of the prostate. Then the finger is pulled out a
little and the movement repeated until the whole lobe of the prostate
has been treated. Then the movement is repeated on the other lobe.
Finally the prostate is drained down the center line from deepest
to shallowest end.
If done properly and with enough pressure (and if the patient
relaxes), several drops of prostatic secretion will appear at
the end of the penis. (If no drops appear, a gentle stroking of
the perineum from back to front will usually force out enough
for culturing.) Sometimes it takes several consecutive drainages
before the first drops begin to appear.
Drainages should be on a regular basis, ideally 2 days apart but
no more than three. A hot sitz bath before the drainage is a good
idea. Sexoton and Kai Kit Wan (Chinese herb pills) may actually
make the drainage more productive.
Drainages do not necessarily have to be done by a doctor. Self
drainage is also possible with long arms or the use of the "Crystal
Clear Wand." A partner can also do the drainages. See
XX CAN PROSTATITIS BE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED?
If you ask a doctor you will probably be told that it cannot.
Perhaps this is because women have no prostate so technically
speaking this is true. However, if the prostatitis is bacterial
or fungal in origin then it is quite likely that the pathogen,
whatever it may be, can be passed back and forth between partners.
There have been many postings to the effect that "my spouse
had this disease and then I got prostatitis" or the reverse
"I have prostatitis and every time I visit my girl friend
she comes down with a UTI or yeast infection." While these
episodes do not prove that it can be transmitted sexually it seems
strange that the most doctors feel so strongly that it can not.
Some doctors, however, do say that the prostatitis pathogens can
be passed back and forth between couples. Dr. A. E. Feliciano
is a strong advocate of this theory and for that reason prefers
to treat both partners at the same time. Backing up his theory
is a recent study which claimed that 30% of all American women
were vaginal carriers of some of the same bacteria known to cause
prostatitis. Another study using a more sensitive test than usually
available has shown that around 15% of American women are infected
with Chlamydia and that their male partner had a 68% chance of
also having the disease. Chlamydia has also been known to cause
Other doctors, seem to say both yes and no. Dr. Alexis Te of Columbia-Presbyterian
Medical Center in NY on his website at:
"Acute and chronic infectious prostatitis are not usually
considered sexually transmitted diseases."
but then later in the same article he says:
"You are at higher risk for getting prostatitis if you
in rectal intercourse or oral sex
It would seem to be wisest to assume that it is sexually transmittable
in either direction and take the usual "safe sex" precaution
of using a condom.
XXI DOES A VASECTOMY LEAD TO PROSTATITIS?
A very controversial question. The usual answer is no. However,
there have been many reports of prostatitis developing after a
vasectomy. Whether this is coincidence or not is hard to determine.
But it seems reasonable to assume that any intervention surgical
or otherwise in the area of the prostate has the potential to
introduce bacteria or other pathogens into the area.
Per Dr. Alexis Te of Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in NY
on his website at: http://cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/urology/prostatitis.html
"You are at higher risk for getting prostatitis if you
recently have had a medical instrument, such as a urinary catheter
or tube, inserted during a medical procedure,
Patients undergoing biopsies of the prostate are routinely given
strong doses of antibiotics to ward off infection which might
be introduced into the area by the procedure.
XXII HOW CAN I POST A QUESTION TO THE NEWSGROUP
IF I DON'T HAVE A NEWS READER OR NEWS SERVICE?
If your internet service offers the newsgroups but you don't have
a news reader program (or you can't get Microsoft's to work) you
can get a nice news reader (NewsXpress 2.0) free from http://www.malch.com/nxfaq.html
If you do not have access to the newsgroups at all but do have
internet access you can use Deja News to post. Go to: http://www.dejanews.com
Then do a search for newsgroups with the topic "prostatitis"
(use the second box). That should bring up sci.med/prostate.prostatitis.
Click on it and you will get a list of some 5000 articles from
the newsgroup sorted by newest first. Click on an article and
you will then have a button at the top labeled "Post Article."
Click on it and fill out the form.
You can read any answers the same way though whole procedure is
A better way might be to subscribe to the List Server. Then you
get an email with all of the posts once a day and can reply to
To SUBSCRIBE to the Prostatitis list:
1.Send electronic mail to this e-mail address:
2.Subject is ignored, but put in a dash if your software requires
3.Place the following message in the body of the mail:
subscribe prostatitis Firstname Lastname
4.where Firstname and Lastname is your first and last name; you
may also include a single letter middle initial.
XXIII ARE THE NEWSGROUP POSTS ARCHIVED ANYWHERE?
Yes. All posts of any value have been archived on the Prostatitis
Foundation Website: http://www.prostatitis.org/textarchive.html
Most are also available and searchable using Deja News. (See XXII)
This is a collection of terms and acronyms which you may run into
on the newsgroup, on the website or in your doctor's office. Where
a separate entry in the FAQ exists which explains a term in more
detail this will be indicated by the entry number in parentheses.
Trademark names are in all caps. For medical terms in languages
other than English try:
Acidophilus:Any of several species of bacteria which thrive
in an acid environment. Cultures of these bacteria are often used
to replace those in the intestines killed off by antibiotic therapy.
Available as pills or in Sweet Acidophilus milk.
Acinus:One of the 20 to 50 fluid producing ducts found
in the prostate. Plural is acini. During an ejaculation the fluid
is pressed out of the ducts by contractions of the smooth muscle
of the prostate. See http://www.prostatitis.org/tarf/p3.htm for
Acronym:A word formed from the initials of a phrase. For
net acronyms not found here see:
Adjuvant.An additional treatment used to increase the
effectiveness of the primary therapy. Radiation therapy and hormonal
therapy are often used as adjuvant treatments following a radical
Aerobic:With air/oxygen. Said of bacteria which thrive
in the presence of oxygen.
AFAIK:Net shorthand for: As Far As I Know.
Alanine: An amino acid. See Feinblatt/Gant Study.
Allopurinol:A drug used to treat gout which has been found
to be useful in relieving symptoms in some cases of prostatitis.
Alpha Blocker:Any of a number of drugs which interfere
with the nerve stimulation of the muscle cells.
Alpha-1 Blocker:An alpha blocker which interferes with
signals to the muscles surrounding the urethra and the blood vessels
without interfering with signals to the bladder, thus reducing
urine back pressure and blood pressure at the same time. HYTRIN,
CARDURA, and MINIPRESS are all alpha-1 blockers. Major side effects
are those of low blood pressure (dizziness, fainting) plus some
men experience problems with erections or ejaculation. Usually
prescribed in gradually increasing doses. Recommendation is to
stop increasing the dose when the first positive effects are noticed.
This reduces the chance of side effects and leaves room to increase
the dosage should the prostate continue to grow. More at:
Amoxicillin: An antibiotic of the penicillin family. More
Ampullary vas:See Vas Deferens.
Anaerobic:Without air/oxygen. Said of bacteria which thrive
in the absence of oxygen.
Anal Canal:The narrow passage between the anus and rectum.
Androgen:A hormone that produces male characteristics.
Anesthetic:A drug that produces general or local loss
of physical sensations, particularly pain. A "spinal"
is the injection of a local anesthetic into the area surrounding
the spinal cord.
Antibody:A protein, produced by the body, that counteracts
the toxic effects of a foreign substance, organism, or disease
within the body.
Antifungal:A drug used against fungal infections.
Antigen:A substance which stimulates the production of
Antihistamine:Any of a variety of drugs commonly found
in over-the-counter cold and allergy medicine. Most can cause
a worsening of urine flow related problems and increased prostate
pain in men with prostatitis or BPH.
Anus:Often confused with rectum. This is the external
opening of the anal canal which leads to the rectum.
Apex:The narrow end of the prostate on the side going
to the penis.
Augmentin:A combination of Amoxicillin and Clavulanate
potassium. It is added to Amoxicillin due to its ability to inactivate
beta-lactamases. These are substances
produced by bacterial defenses. More at:
Auto-immune Disease:A disease caused by the body's protective
mechanism becoming confused and attacking a part of the body which
is not an invader.
BACTRIM:Trademark name for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.
A combination of antibacterial drugs used for urinary and prostatic
infections. Stay out of the sun while taking this drug. Also:
SEPTRA, SMZ-TMP. More at:
Balloon Dilation:A procedure where a balloon like object
is inserted in the urethra via the penis. When the device reaches
the prostate the balloon part is inflated. This opens up the urethra
and in some patients provides temporary relief of BPH related
Base:An alkaline substance. Opposite of acid.
Biopsy:A procedure where a small hollow needle is inserted
into a suspicious body part in order to obtain a specimen for
laboratory analysis. Usually used to check for the presence of
Bladder:Storage organ for urine. During urination the
bladder contracts to force urine out.
Bladder Neck:Outlet of the bladder.
BPH: Short for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (or Hyperplasia).
Noncancerous enlargement of the prostate. This enlargement often
results in urinary flow problems in men. Also see the newsgroup
at sci.med.prostate.bph. See: http://isis.nlm.nih.gov/ahcpr/bph/www/bphctxt.html for
more details. These are the guidelines for BPH diagnosis and treatment
recommended by a government panel and thus give a good idea of
the mindset of the average uro. They also contain quite a bit
of information on the various tests which you may run into.
For an idea of the UK approach to BPH see:
Brachytherapy:The insertion of a radioactive source into
a patient. A therapy used to treat prostate cancer where radioactive
beads are implanted in the prostate. See:
BTW:Net shorthand for: By The Way.
Calcification:The body's attempt to render invading bacteria
harmless by coating them with calcium. This can result in prostate
stones which may cause problems of their own. Small stones may
migrate out of the prostate into the urethra causing "sand"
in the urine.
Candida albicans:A fungal organism usually responsible
for yeast infections in women. May be responsible for some cases
of prostatitis. More at:
Candidiasis:A vaginal infection caused by Candida albicans.
Carbenicillin:An antibiotic of the penicillin family.
CARDURA:Tradename for Doxazosin. An alpha-1 blocker used
to treat BPH symptoms. May also help against impotence! More at:
CAT Scan:Short for Computerized Axial Tomography. A technique
using X-rays and a computer to produce a three dimensional picture
of a part of the body.
Catheter:A tube inserted in the bladder (via the penis)
to allow the bladder to drain.
Chinese Herbs:Recently many readers have been trying Chinese
herb pills; Kai Kit Wan and Sexoton. It appears they may open
the acini and allow them to drain more easily. A web page dedicated
to information on these herbs can be found at: http://www.prostatitis.org/chinesepills.html
Chlamydia:A group of spherical-shaped non-bacterial organisms
which can infect the urinary tract and the prostate. Considered
a sexual transmitted disease. More widespread than gonorrhea.
Often symptom-free though may cause orchitis or epididymitis in
men. In women it causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which
can lead to infertility. If acquired during pregnancy can cause
blindness in the baby. Symptoms in males: burning sensation during
urination, discharge from the penis, testicular tenderness or
pain, lower abdominal tenderness. Dr. Feliciano reports finding
Chlamydia in 40% of his prostatitis patients.
In females the symptoms may be: burning sensation during urination,
vaginal discharge, symptoms of PID. More at:
CIPRO:Trademark name for ciprofloxacin. One of the family
of quinolones. Can cause sore or broken tendons as a side effect.
Do not take antiacids while taking this drug. More at:
Ciprofloxacin:An antibiotic of the quinoline family. Used
to treat urinary and prostatic infections. Can cause sore or broken
tendons as a side effect. Do not take antiacids while taking this
drug. Relatively new and expensive. More at:
Circumcision:Surgical removal of the foreskin.
CNBP:Short for Chronic Non-Bacterial Prostatitis.
Coitus:The sex act.
Colloidial Silver:A silver based preparation reported
(but not proven) to have antibacterial properties. Generally considered
a scam. Build up of silver can be irreversible. Not recommended.
Computerized Axial Tomography:See CAT Scan.
Corpura Amylacea:Small semi-solid bodies sometimes found
in the prostate or the seminal fluid. Thought to be formed when
seminal fluid remains too long in the prostate.
Cryogenic Prostate Surgery:A technique using liquid nitrogen
to freeze (and kill) the surrounding tissue in hopes of removing
the obstruction or cancerous cells.
Crystal Clear Wand:A commercial device which can be used
to self-drain the prostate. Cost is about $50. Open Enterprises
in San Francisco (800-289-8423). More at:
Culture:A sample of a bodily fluid is placed into a nutritive
medium and allowed to sit for 24 hours or longer. At the end of
the time period the sample is inspected for any bacteria which
may have grown. The technician can then count and identify the
bacteria which were present in the bodily fluid. A culture can
also be used to determine which antibiotic is most effective on
the bacteria. This is then called sensitivity testing.
Cyst:A pocket of fluid.
Cystitis:Inflammation of the bladder. More at:
Cystoscopy:An examination of the bladder and urethra using
a tube inserted in the urethra. (XVII)
Decongestant:Any of a variety of drugs commonly found
in over-the-counter cold and allergy medicines. Most can cause
a worsening of urine flow related problems and increased prostate
pain in men with prostatitis or BPH.
DHEA:Short for dehydroepiandrosterone. The most common
steroid hormone found in circulation in the human body. Currently
being touted as a "fountain of youth" supplement which
gives you energy, builds muscles, takes off fat, and cures whatever
is wrong with you. Not recommended for men with prostate problems.
May increase the likelihood of prostate cancer or speed up the
growth of already existing cancer.
Diazepam:Generic name for the tranquilizer VALIUM. More
DIFLUCAN:Trade name for fluconazole, an antifungal. More
Digital Rectal Exam:See DRE. (XIII)
DIY:Short for Do-It-Yourself. Usually refers to do-it-yourself
prostate drainage. More at:
Doxazosin: Generic form of Cardura. See alpha-1 blocker.
Doxycycline:An antibiotic of the tetracycline family.
Dr. F:Short for Dr. A. E. Feliciano, the doctor in the
Philippines who has been able to cure several members of the newsgroup
when no one else could.
Dr. Fuzzy: Short for Dr. Fugazzotto. A doctor who has been
able to cultivate bacteria in cultures when the standard procedures
DRE:Short for Digital Rectal Exam. You bend over and the
doctor inserts his gloved finger (covered with lots of K-Y jelly)
into your rectum via the anus so that he can feel the size, shape,
and condition of the prostate. (XIII)
DS:Short for Double Strength. Often used as part of the
trademark name for a drug to indicate a stronger than usual dosage.
Example: BACTRIM DS.
Dynamic Obstruction:Blockage of the urethra due to the
tightening of the smooth muscle tissue in the prostate.
Dysuria:Burning feeling during urination.
Ejaculation:Forceful expulsion of semen during an orgasm.
Ejaculatory Duct:Term for the duct between the junction
of the seminal vesicle & vas deferens and the urethra.
Epididymis:This is the duct which brings the sperm from
the top of the testicle to the vas deferens. There are two. Plural
is Epididymides. It is coiled for extra length and plays a role
in the maturation of sperm. It can also become infected and then
you have epididymitis.
Epididymitis:An infection of the epididymis. See Epididymis.
EPS:Short for Expressed Prostatic Secretion. The fluid
pressed out of the prostate during a DRE or prostate drainage.
Note that "Expressed" is used here with the meaning
of "pressed out" not "overnight delivery."
Erythromycin:An antibiotic. More at:
FAQ:Short for Frequently Asked Questions. A list of common
questions with answers. Always read the FAQ before posting a question
in a newsgroup.
Feinblatt/Gant Study:A study published in March of 1958
in the Journal of the Maine Medical Association Volume 49 Number
3 which reported that patients given a combination of three amino
acids (glycine, alanine, and glutamic acid) resulted in considerable
improvement in BPH symptoms in most patients.
Feliciano, Dr A. E.:A doctor in the Philippines who has
been able to successfully treat several members of the newsgroup
when no one else could.
Feliciano, Dr. A. N.:The father of Dr. A. E. Feliciano.
He is estranged from his son but also advocates regular prostate
drainage though he differs from his son in preferring the use
of multiple antibiotics simultaneously.
Finasteride:Generic name for PROSCAR. See Testosterone.
FLAGYL:Trade name for metronidazole. An antibiotic used
against anaerobic bacterial infections. More at:
Fluconazole:Generic name for DIFLUCAN, an antifungal.
FLOXIN:One of the quinolone family of antibiotics. More
Foley:A catheter which is held in place by a small balloon
inside the bladder.
Foreskin:The loose fold of skin which covers the glans
in uncircumcised men.
GEOCILLIN:Trade name for carbenicillin, an antibiotic
of the penicillin family. More at:
Glans:The tip of the penis.
Gleason Score:A measurement of the potential aggressiveness
of prostate cancer. The Gleason scale is from 2 to 10 with 10
being the worst. 2 is the lowest score because the scale is made
up of the results of two estimates (rated on a scale of 1 to 5),
one of the more immature malignant scales and then the rest.
Gram's method:A staining technique in which the bacteria
are stained with crystal violet, treated with iodine, decolorized
with alcohol, and counterstained with safranine (a dye). Results
of this procedure are used to characterize bacteria as either
Gram-positive or Gram-negative. This information is useful in
classifying the bacteria and in determining which type of antibiotic
might be effective.
Gram-negative:A term used to describe bacteria which do
not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method.
Gram-positive:A term used to describe bacteria which retain
the violet stain used in Gram's method.
Glutamic Acid:An amino acid. See Feinblatt/Gant Study.
Glycine:An amino acid. See Feinblatt/Gant Study.
Hematospermia:Blood in the seminal fluid.
Hematuria:Blood in the urine.
Hemospermia:Blood in the seminal fluid.
Hesitancy:Slowness to start urination.
HTH:Net Shorthand for: Hope This Helps.
Hydrocele:An accumulation of fluid in a body cavity, esp.
in the scrotum. More at:
HYTRIN:Tradename for terazosin. An alpha blocker used
to treat the symptoms of BPH. More at:
IC:Short for Interstitial Cystitis
IMHO:Net shorthand for "In My Humble Opinion"
Immunofluorescence:The use of fluorescein-stained or labeled
antibodies to locate antigen in tissues. The antibodies combine
with their specific antigen. The combination gives off a visible
glow under the proper light (Ultra-violet?). Used as a test for
certain infective agents. More at:
IMO:Net shorthand for "In My Opinion"
Impotence:The loss of ability to produce and/or sustain
Incontinence:A loss of urinary control. There are various
kinds and degrees of incontinence. Overflow, stress, and total
incontinence are listed separately.
Indoramin:An alpha-1 antagonist used to treat BPH in the
UK. Presumably similar in effect to HYTRIN. Generic form of DORALESE.
Infarction:Death of tissue due to a lack of blood supply.
Common in BPH.
Inflammation:Redness or swelling caused by injury or infection.
INPO:Net shorthand for: In No Particular Order.
Intermittency:Starting and stopping during urination.
Interstitial:Located in the spaces between organs.
Interstitial Cystitis:An inflammation of the bladder wall
which results in symptoms similar to BPH. See:
IOW:Net shorthand for: In Other Words.
IRL:Net shorthand for: In Real Life.
K-Y Jelly:A slippery substance similar to VASELINE but
preferred in medical procedures because it washes off easily with
Kai Kit Wan:Chinese herb pills which have been reported
to assist in draining the acini. See http://www.prostatitis.org/chinesepills.html
Leukocyte:White blood cell.
Lobe:A subsection of the prostate. There are two lateral
(side) lobes, a median (center) lobe, an anterior (front) lobe
and a posterior(rear) lobe.
LOL:Net shorthand for: Laughing Out Loud.
Lomefloxacin:An antibiotic of the quinolone family. More
MACROBID:Trade name for nitrofurantoin, an antibiotic.
MACRODANTIN:Trade name for nitrofurantoin, an antibiotic.
Meares-Stamey:A test where cultures of the urine are taken
before and after a DRE. Currently the standard test used by some
urologists to determine whether the prostatitis is bacterial or
Medscape:A website which acts as a medical newsletter.
Currently a free service but you must register and use a password
to access full text of articles. See http://www.medscape.com
Metronidazole:Generic name for FLAGYL. An antibiotic used
against anaerobic bacterial infections. More at:
MINIPRESS:A drug used to treat BPH. Similar in effect
MINOCIN:Trade name for minocycline. More at:
Minocycline:An antibiotic of the tetracycline family.
Morbidity.1)The number of cases of a
2)Unhealthy consequences and
complications resulting from
MOTAS:Net shorthand for: Member Of The Appropriate Sex.
Replaces MOTOS (where the second O stood for opposite). See SO.
MRI:Magnetic Resonance Imaging. An expensive high tech
device for viewing soft tissue inside the body. Can be used to
detect cancer, blood flow problems, cysts, and dead cells.
NBCP:Short for Non-Bacterial Chronic Prostatitis.
Nephritis:Chronic or acute infection of the kidney(s).
Net:Short for the internet or world wide web.
Newbie:A newcomer to the net.
Nitrofurantoin:An antibiotic. More at:
Nocturia:Waking up in the middle of the night to urinate.
Norfloxacin:An antibiotic of the quinolone family. More
Nosocomial:Hospital caused. Disease or problem acquired
at a hospital or as a result of medical treatment.
NTK:Net shorthand for: Nice To Know.
NYSTATIN:Trade name for Mycostatin. An antifungal. More
ONNAor ONNTA: Net shorthand for: Oh, No, Not (This)
Orchiectomy:Removal of one or both testicles.
Orchitis:An inflammation of one or both of the testicles.
Orofloxacin:Antibiotic of the quinolone family. More at:
OTOH:Net shorthand for: On The Other Hand.
Overflow Incontinence:A condition in which the bladder
retains too much urine after voiding. As a consequence, the bladder
remains full most of the time, resulting in involuntary seepage
of urine from the bladder.
Palliative Treatment:Medical care which aims to reduce
the symptoms without curing the patient.
Pca:Short for Prostate Cancer.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease:See PID
Perineal:Having to do with the perineum.
Perineum:The area between your legs from the anus to the
PID:Short for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. A general term
referring to infection involving the lining of the uterus, the
Fallopian tubes, or the ovaries.
pH:A measurement of the alkalinity or acidity of a solution.
Neutral is 7.0. Lower numbers are acidic, higher alkaline.
Placebo:A non working imitation of the real drug or procedure.
Used during effectiveness testing as a control to eliminate psychological
effects of taking medicine. (Some people will get better just
because they think the medicine they are taking will help them.)
Prazosin:A drug used to treat BPH symptoms. Similar to
Prednisone:A synthetic hormone used as an anti-inflammatory.
Priapism:A painful erection that does not go away.
Prognosis:A forecast of the course of a disease, and future
prospects of the patient.
Proloprim:Trade name for trimethoprim, an antibacterial
drug. More at:
PROSCAR:Tradename for Finasteride. A drug used to shrink
the prostate. See Testosterone. More at:
Prostate:A small organ wrapped around the urethra which
provides some of the seminal fluid. During ejaculation the fluid
is squeezed out of the prostate by contractions of the smooth
muscles in the prostate. (III) See http://www.prostatitis.org/tarf/p3.htm for
Prostate Cancer:A malignant tumor growing in/on the prostate.
See sci.med.prostate.cancer newsgroup or http://www.prostate.com
Prostate Drainage:A technique perfected by Dr. Feliciano
which uses maximum finger pressure on the prostate during a DRE
in order to squeeze as much of the trapped prostatic fluid as
possible. (XIII, XIX)
Prostate Massage:An old remedy which was once the only
treatment for prostatitis. During a DRE, the doctor gently strokes
and pushes on the prostate. This helps to drain some of the trapped
Prostate-Specific Antigen:See PSA.
Prostate Stone:A small rock-like formation sometimes found
in the prostate. Believed by some to be the result of calcification.
Prostatectomy:A surgical operation where some or all of
the prostate is removed. More at:
Prostatitis:An inflammation of the prostate. (YY)
Prostatodynia:A word which means simply "prostate
pain." Used as a diagnosis for patients when there is no
sign of inflammation, even though there is pain in the prostate.
Prostatosis:General term for any disease of the prostate.
PROSTATRON:A device used to treat BPH symptoms using microwaves.
PSA:Short for Prostate-Specific Antigen. This term is
usually used when talking about a blood test which measures gamma-seminoprotein
activity. Gamma-seminoprotein is a protein which is a key component
in the liquification of semen. PSA is usually found in high levels
in the prostate but low levels in the blood. When something such
as cancer or an infection or injury breaks down prostate tissue,
PSA is released into the blood stream. It has been found that
high PSA test levels may indicate the presence of prostate cancer
up to four years before it can be detected otherwise.
There are several ways to interpret the PSA levels. One system
uses 4.0 as the dividing line. Lower is OK higher is suspect.
Another system uses a sliding number based on age: 49 and below
= 2.5, 50-59 = 3.5, 60-69 = 4.5, 70+ = 6.5. Non-whites should
subtract 10 years from each scale. A third system does not worry
too much about the absolute value but instead concentrates on
the rate of increase over time.
A recent article in Urology (Dec 96 or Jan 97) reported that there
are actually two types of PSA. One is termed "free"
and the other "bound to ACT." ACT is a protein of some
sort. The ratio of "free" to "bound" was found
to detect cancer up to 10 years in advance of other detection
methods and is claimed to be so accurate that biopsies would no
longer be required. Unfortunately the PSA ratio test is not yet
The level of PSA can be influenced by: An ejaculation within 72
hours of the test, prostatitis, allopurinol, and PROSCAR. All
but PROSCAR can raise the PSA level. Also recent studies (New
England Journal of Medicine July 96. Oesterling) indicate that
there is a significant difference in the way the PSA results should
be interpreted for non-whites. A recent study also shows that
HYTRIN also lowers PSA. See:
The level of PSA may or may not be influenced by Saw Palmetto
or a DRE prior to the test. Some recent studies have claimed there
were no or only minor effects (0 for Saw Palmetto, +.1 for a DRE)
but these are controversial. No information is available on the
effect of a Dr. Feliciano style prostate drainage but chances
are it could raise the PSA level.
More on PSA at:
Pubis:The area of the body just above the base of the
Pyuria:Pus in the urine.
Quinolone:Any of a family of synthetic antibiotics. CIPRO,
FLOXIN are the two most commonly prescribed. More at:
Radical Prostatectomy:An operation to remove the entire
prostate gland and seminal vesicles.
RBC:Short for Red Blood Cells. Sometimes found in the
EPS or urine. May indicate an infection.
Rectum:The terminal portion of the large intestines.
Reflux:Flowing back. Usually refers to the entry of urine
into the prostate.
Reiter's Syndrome:An inflammatory disease effecting several
body systems in more-or-less random order: urinary tract, eyes,
joints, and skin. Not all persons have the complete set of symptoms,
in which case it is called incomplete Reiter's. Men are effected
more than women. The urinary tract symptoms are typical of URI's
-- burning, urgency, etc -- prostatitis can occur as well. The
eye symptoms can be either conjunctivitis or iritis. The joint
problems are primarily confined to the spine and pelvic region
with some peripheral joints involved. Reiter's effects the tendons,
ligaments, etc more than the joint itself. Tendonitis, particularly
of the Achilles tendon is typical. So is fascitis of the foot.
Permanent damage to joints is rare. The skin problems include
rashes and painless sores in the mouth. The disease is typically
episodic with flare-ups and remissions.
Reiter's is thought to be an auto-immune disease which like rheumatic
fever follows an infection somewhere else in the body. Susceptible
persons usually (about 70%) have an antigen called HLA B27 which
can be identified from a blood test. The infections that trigger
Reiter's can be either urinary tract related or GI related. Multiple
organisms have been implicated.
Remission:Complete or partial disappearance of the signs
and symptoms of the disease.
Residual Urine:The amount of urine remaining in the bladder
Retrograde Ejaculation:A condition where the semen is
sent to the bladder instead of the penis. Common after a TURP.
Retropubic Prosectomy:Similar to the suprapubic prosectomy
except the bladder is not opened. More at:
ROFL or ROTFL:Net shorthand for: Rolling On (The) Floor
Laughing. Used as a response to joke or funny statement.
ROTO-ROOTER:Trademark of a drain cleaning service in the
USA which uses a rotating device on a flexible hose. Often used
jokingly as a synonym for a TURP.
Safranine:A dye used in Gram's method.
Saw Palmetto:A member of the palm family which grows wild
in Florida and the southeastern United States. Technically known
as Serenoa repens. Often used as a treatment to relieve symptoms
of enlarged prostate or BPH. See http://www.cruzio.com/~mendosa/sawpalm.html for
more information. (YY)
Scrotum:The pouch which contains the testicles.
Selenium:An element. Thought to be required by the human
body and often in short supply. Supplements of 200 mg per day
have been recommended as a possible cancer prevention measure.
Semen:The fluid produced by an ejaculation.
Seminal Vesicles:Two glands which provides about two-thirds
of the fluid which makes up the semen. These are located to the
left and right of the prostate. Output of the seminal vesicle
mixes with the sperm from the vas deferens and flows through a
duct which then passes the fluid through the prostate to the urethra.
This duct can also be blocked by a swollen prostate and/or a spreading
of the infection.
Sensitivity Testing:A method of determining which antibiotic
works best against a particular bacteria.
SEPTRA:Trade name for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. A
combination of antibacterial drugs used for urinary and prostate
infections. Stay out of the sun while taking this drug. Also:
SMZ-TMP, BACTRIM. More at:
Sexoton.A type of Chinese herb pills. It appears they
may open the acini and allow them to drain more easily. A web
page dedicated to information on Chinese herbs can be found at:
Sitz Bath:A fancy term for sitting in a tub of hot water.
May bring temporary relief of some prostatitis symptoms.
SMZ-TMP:Trade name for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.
A combination of antibacterial drugs used for urinary and prostate
infections. Stay out of the sun while taking this drug. Also:
SEPTRA, BACTRIM. More at:
SO:Short for Significant Other. (Sexual partner).
Sperm or spermatozoa: The little tadpole like organisms
which actually fertilize the egg.
Sphincter:A ringlike muscle that constricts a bodily passage
or opening to control the flow through the passage or opening.
Sphincters to control the flow of urine in men are found at the
bladder neck and on the penis side of the prostate.
Sphincter, Urinary:A ring-like muscle which contracts
to cut off urine flow. Located on around the urethra at the exit
from the prostate.
Staph:Short for Staphylococcus. A spherical gram-positive
Static Obstruction:Blockage of the urethra due to the
pressure of the swollen prostate.
Stent:A hollow tube placed in the urethra to keep it open.
Stricture:The narrowing of a passageway.
Strep:Short for Streptococcus. An ovoid gram-positive
bacterium which causes Scarlet Fever and Strep throat.
Stress Incontinence:The involuntary discharge of urine
when there is increased pressure upon the bladder, as in coughing
or straining to lift heavy objects.
Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim:An antibacterial. BACTRIM,
SEPTRA. Stay out of the sun while taking this drug. More at:
Superior Pole:When used in reference to the prostate refers
to the upper end of the prostate. The end farthest from the anus.
Suprapubic Prosectomy: A prosectomy where the incision
is made between the navel and the penis. The bladder is cut open
during this procedure.
Terazosin:Generic name for HYTRIN. More at:
Testes: Another name for testicles.
Testosterone:The male sex hormone. This hormone is produced
mostly by the testes but the adrenal gland also produces a small
amount. You need a supply to maintain your prostate's current
size. Castration cuts off the major source of supply and results
in shrinkage of the prostate so this is sometimes used to shrink
or slow the growth of prostate cancer. Testosterone can not be
used directly by the prostate however but must first be converted
to Dihydrotestosterone by the action of a prostate enzyme called
5-alpha reductase. PROSCAR (used to shrink the prostate in some
BPH cases) works by interfering with this conversion.
Tetracycline:An antibiotic. More at:
TIA:Net shorthand for "Thanks In Advance."
TLIP:Transurethral Longitudinal Incision of the Prostate.
Surgery which makes longitudinal cuts in the urethra in order
to relieve some of the obstruction. Not as effective as a TURP
but may be easier on the patient's sex life. (YY)
Tobramycin:An antibiotic. More at:
Total Incontinence:The loss of control over the sphincters
of the bladder neck and urethra, resulting in total loss of retentive
Trabeculation:Irregular configuration of the bladder caused
by an obstruction.
Trimethoprim-sulfa:An antibacterial compound. Appears
to be a version of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.
TRUS:Short for TransRectal UltraSound. A device which
uses ultrasound to check the prostate for tumors and cysts. Also
gives an idea of the size and shape of the prostate. Most have
the capability to do a biopsy.
TULIP:Transurethral Ultrasound-guided Laser Incision of
the Prostate. A high tech version of the TUIP.
TUNA:A relatively new method for treating BPH. There was
a good article in the Dec. '96 Newsweek (the one with the red
Dilbert on the cover).
TURP:Short for TransUrethral Resection of the Prostate.
Surgical removal of the prostate's innermost core by an approach
through the urethra, with no external skin incision; the most
common treatment for symptomatic BPH.
Urethra:the tube that carries urine from the bladder and
semen from the prostate and other sex glands out through the tip
of the penis See http://www.prostatitis.org/tarf/p3.htm for
Urinalysis:examination of the urine for
Uro:Short for urologist.
Urologist:A doctor who specializes in diseases of the
urinary tract and the male reproductive system.
UTI:Short for Urinary Tract Infection.
Utricle:The remnant of the tissue which would in a woman
have developed into the uterus. Located in the uretha between
the two ejaculatory duct openings. In some men this can form a
cyst which can mimic prostatitis. See http://www.prostatitis.org/tarf/p3.htm for
Vas Deferens:This is one of the tubes which they cut when
you have a vasectomy. There is one for each testicle. Plural is
vasa deferens. The lower end actually attaches to the epididymis.
The upper end is slightly swollen and serves as a storage area
for mature sperm. This end is sometimes called the ampullary vas.
See http://www.prostatitis.org/tarf/p3.htm for
drawing. Note that it is labeled Deferent Duct in the drawing.
Verumontanum:Sometimes shortened to veru. A small protuberance
(3-4 mm)on the urethra where the ejaculatory ducts enter. See
VLAT:Visually directed Laser Ablation of the Prostate.
A high tech version of the TURP.
Watchful Waiting:A strategy of management in which the
patient is monitored but receives no active treatment.
WBC:Short for White Blood Cells. Examination of the EPS
or urine sometimes reveals the presence of white blood cells.
This is usually considered a sign of infection.
Website:Usually refers to the website of the Prostatitis
Foundation; http://www.prostatitis.org. Note
that http://www.prostate.com is
the website for Prostate Cancer.
WT:Net shorthand for: Without Thinking.
WTR:Net shorthand for: With Respect To.
WTTM: Net shorthand for: Without Thinking Too Much.
Xatral:A French alpha-1 blocker used to treat BPH symptoms.
YMMV:Net shorthand for: Your Mileage May Vary. Used to
indicate that something may work differently for someone else.
Yohimbine:A bark extract used as a treatment for impotence.
Warning: Some over-the-counter versions may contain added methyltestosterone
which can increase the growth of prostate tumors.
Yohimbine HCL:The purified prescription form of yohimbine.
Zap:To kill or to heat up something in the microwave.