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 >Note from Dr. Shoskes:
 >I have always had a bit of trouble with the idea that Elmiron reconstitutes the bladder lining. Just because the bladder lining is deficient in the GAG layer, which uses a heparin analogue as a building block, doesn't automatically mean that sprinkling this building block on the surface of the bladder would fix the problem. It also doesn't explain the efficacy of Elmiron in some men (seen so far in unblinded trials). The following recent paper suggests an alternate mechanism which makes more sense to me. If so, it might be another mechanism whereby the quercetin in Prosta-Q is effective.
 > Daniel Shoskes MD
Cleveland Clinic Florida
J Urol 2000 Dec;164(6):2119-25

Pentosanpolysulfate inhibits mast cell histamine secretion and intracellular calcium ion levels: an alternative explanation of its beneficial effect in interstitial cystitis.

Chiang G, Patra P, Letourneau R, Jeudy S, Boucher W, Green M, Sant GR, Theoharides TC
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Tufts University School of Medicine and Department of Urology, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
[Medline record in process]
Mast cells are ubiquitous cells derived from the bone marrow and are responsible for allergic reactions as they release numerous vasodilatory, nociceptive and pro-inflammatory molecules in response to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific antigen. Mast cell secretion is also triggered by a number of peptides, such as bradykinin and substance P, and may also be involved in the development of inflammatory responses. An example is interstitial cystitis, which is a sterile painful bladder disorder that has been associated with a defective glycosaminoglycan bladder mucosal layer and an increased number of activated mast cells. Pentosanpolysulfate is a synthetic, sulfated polysaccharide that has been approved for the treatment of interstitial cystitis on the premise that it may replenish the defective glycosaminoglycan layer. We hypothesize that pentosanpolysulfate may also have an additional or alternate action on bladder mast cells. We report that pentosanpolysulfate has a powerful dose dependent inhibitory effect on mast cell release of histamine induced by the mast cell secretagogue compound 48/80.
Inhibition of mast cell secretion was documented by light and electron microscopy and extended to stimulation by substance P or IgE and antigen.
The inhibition was more potent than that seen with the clinically available mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn). Maximal inhibition by pentosanpolysulfate was apparent within 1 minute, was unaffected by the length of pre-incubation and persisted after the drug was washed off. In contrast, the effect of cromolyn was limited by rapid tachyphylaxis. In addition, while cromolyn has no effect on mucosal or rat basophilic leukemia cells, pentosanpolysulfate inhibited histamine secretion from both. Confocal microscopy using a calcium indicator dye showed that pentosanpolysulfate decreased intracellular calcium ion levels.
Pentosanpolysulfate appears to be a potent inhibitor of allergic and nonimmune mast cell stimulation, which is an alternative explanation of its benefit in interstitial cystitis.

Effects of luteolin, quercetin and baicalein on immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human cultured mast cells.

Kimata M, Shichijo M, Miura T, Serizawa I, Inagaki N, Nagai H Department of Pharmacology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan.
Flavonoids have a variety of activities including anti-allergic activities, and are known to inhibit histamine release from human basophils and murine mast cells.
The effects of luteolin, a flavone, on the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic mediator release from human cultured mast cells (HCMCs) were investigated and compared with those of baicalein and quercetin. METHODS: HCMCs were sensitized with IgE, and then treated with flavonoids before challenge with antihuman IgE. The amount of released mediators was determined as was mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and phosphorylation of intracellular proteins were detected after anti-IgE stimulation.
Luteolin, baicalein and quercetin inhibited the release of histamine, leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from HCMC in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the three flavonoids inhibited A23187-induced histamine release. As concerns Ca2+ signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited Ca2+ influx strongly, although baicalein did slightly. With regard to PKC signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited PKC translocation and PKC activity strongly, although baicalein did slightly. The suppression of Ca2+ and PKC signallings might contribute to the inhibition of mediator release. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), that were activated just before the release of LTs and PGD2 and GM-CSF mRNA expression in IgE-mediated signal transduction events, were clearly suppressed by luteolin and quercetin. In contrast, the flavonoids did not affect the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that luteolin is a potent inhibitor of human mast cell activation through the inhibition of Ca2+ influx and PKC activation.
PMID: 10718847, UI: 20183493

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